Cerebral Cortex and Basal Ganglia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cerebral Cortex and Basal Ganglia Deck (44)
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1

Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain

Gyri

2

Small grooves dividing the gyri

Sulci

3

Divides the frontal from the parietal lobe

Central Sulcus

4

Deep grooves, generally dividing large
regions/lobes of the brain

Fissures

5

Divides the two cerebral hemispheres

Longitudinal fissure

6

Separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum

Transverse Fissure

7

Divides the temporal lobe from the frontal
and parietal lobes

Sylvian/Lateral Fissure

8

It plays an integral role in the following functions/actions:
•Motor
•Integrative functions
•Memory Formation
•Emotions
•Decision Making/Reasoning
•Personality

Frontal Lobe

9

BRODMANN AREAS (BA)
relate specifically to motor activities

Brodmann’s areas 4, 6, 8, and 44

10

BRODMANN AREAS (BA)
imprecisely determined functions
involved in the initiation of planned action and executive control of all mental operations, including emotional expression

BA 9 to 12 and 45 to 47

11

BRODMANN AREAS (BA)
connected with the ocular and other brainstem motor nuclei
With identical areas of the other cerebral hemisphere through the corpus callosum

BA 8 and 6

12

BRODMANN AREAS (BA)
primary sensory cortex projects to the superior parietal lobule

BA 5

13

BRODMANN AREAS (BA)
contains cells that are activated by the homolateral geniculocalcarine pathway

BA 17

14

Frontal components of the limbic system and take part in the control of respiration, blood pressure, peristalsis, and other autonomic functions

medial-orbital gyriand anterior parts of the cingulated gyri

15

Provide most of the cerebral efferent motor system that forms the pyramidalor corticospinaltract

frontal agranular cortex

16

Play an integral role in the following functions:
Hearing
Organization/Comprehension of language
Information Retrieval (Memory and Memory Formation)

Temporal Lobe

17

Responsible for hearing

Primary Auditory Cortex

18

Interprets the sense of smell once it reaches the cortex via the olfactory bulbs

Primary Olfactory Cortex

19

Language comprehension. Located on the LEFT temporal lobe.

Wernicke's Area

20

White matter tract that connects Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area through the Temporal, Parietal and Frontal Lobes

Arcuate fasciculus

21

Acoustic or receptive aspects of language

Superior part of the dominant temporal lobe

22

great integrator of “sensations, emotions, and behavior”

Temporal Lobe

23

site where sensory modalities are integrated into ultimate self-awareness

Temporal Lobe

24

It plays a major role in the following functions/actions:
Senses and integrates sensation(s)
Spatial awareness and perception
(Proprioception -Awareness of body/ body parts in space and in relation to each other)

Parietal Lobe

25

Involved with processing of tactile and proprioceptive information

Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus)

26

Assists with the integration and interpretation of sensations relative to body position and orientation in space. May assist with visuo-motor coordination

Somatosensory Association Cortex

27

Primary site involved with the interpretation of the sensation of Taste

Primary Gustatory Cortex

28

____________ receives most of its afferent projections from the ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, which is the terminus of the _____________ pathways

postcentral gyrus (primary somatosensory cortex)
ascending somatosensory

29

understanding of spokenand writtenwordsis partly a function of the

supramarginal and angular gyri of the dominantparietallobe

30

Its primary function is the processing, integration, and interpretation of VISION and visual stimuli

Occipital Lobe

31

essential for visual perception and recognition

termini of the geniculocalcarine pathways

32

Is a large collection of gray matter within the hemispheres

Basal Ganglia

33

It is comprised by a network of subcortical nuclei of the telencephalon, subthalamus and midbrain

Basal Ganglia

34

It influences the lower motor neurons indirectly through the modulation of cerebral cortex and brainstem

Basal Ganglia

35

Play a role in the automatic execution of learned motor plan and in the preparation for movement

Basal Ganglia

36

Non-motor function of the basal ganglia

Cognitive Function
Emotion and Motivation Function

37

Nuclei found on each of the hemispheres

• The caudate
• The putamen
• The globus pallidus
Thesubstantia nigra
Thesubthalamic nucleus
nucleus accumbens septi
olfactory tubercle

38

Composition of corpus striatum

Caudate
Putamen
GLobus pallidus

39

Compostion of Striatum, Dorsal Striatum and Neostriatum

Caudate
Putamen

40

Compostion of Ventral Striatum

Caudate
Putamen
Nucleus accumbens
Olfactory Tubercle

41

Composition of Pallidum, paleostriatum

Globus pallidus

42

Composition of Lentiform Nuceleus

Putamen
Globus pallidus

43

Activation of this pathway leads to net disinhibitory (facilitatory) effect on the thalamus and an increase in motor behavior

Direct pathway

44

Activation of this pathway leads to increased inhibition of the thalamus and decreased motor activity

Indirect pathway