Cerebral Localization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cerebral Localization Deck (29):
0

What is the neuron that is unique to the cerebral cortex?

Pyramidal cell

1

How many layers are found in the archicortex?

3 cell layers

2

How many layers are found in the neocortex?

6 cell layers

3

What are the effects of a lesion in the occipital lobe- primary visual cortex?

Blindness

4

What are the effects of a lesion in the occipital lobe- visual association cortex?

Visual agnosia (not knowing)

5

What are the effects of a lesion in the occipital lobe- fusiform face area?

Prosonpagnosia- cannot recognize faces

6

What are the effects of a lesion in the superior parietal lobe?

Tactile agnosia and astereoagnosia

7

What are the effects of a lesion in the inferior parietal lobe?

Apraxia- inability to carry out learned motor act

Gerstmann's syndrome- finger agnosia, difficulty in reading and writing, left right confusion.

8

What are the effects of a lesion in the dorsolateral temporal lobe?

Involves loss of auditory comprehension

9

What are the effects of a lesion in the posterior superior temporal gyrus (area 22)?

Wernicke's receptive aphasia: free flowing speech with no content.

10

What are the effects of a lesion in the inferior temporal gyri?

Memory loss: this is the source of info that is feeding into the hippocampal memory system.

11

What are the effects of a lesion in the medial temporal lobe?

Amnesia ( important for memory)

12

What are the effects of a lesion in the lateral frontal lobe primary motor area?

Contralateral paralysis- especially of hand

13

What are the effects of a lesion in the lateral frontal lobe promotor area?

Contralateral paresis of upper arm

14

What are the effects of a lesion in the medial aspect of the motor areas?

Contralateral paralysis of leg

15

What are the effects of a lesion in the supplemental motor area?

Akinesis- loss of the ability to initiate movement.
Mutism- loss of ability to initiate speech.

16

What are the effects of a lesion in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex?

Problems with working memory and planning motor responses.

17

What are the effects of a lesion in the supraorbital prefrontal area?

Hyperactivity, impulsiveness, inappropriate behavior; this region is a repository for rules regarding socially acceptable behavior.

18

What is prosonpagnosia?

Lesion in the FFA resulting in the inability to recognize faces.

19

What is tactile agnosia?

Lesion in the superior parietal lobe resulting in the inability to recognize objects by touch.

20

What is optic ataxia?

Lesion in the superior parietal lobe resulting in the loss in ability to direct hand to object in nearby space.

21

What is apraxia?

Lesion in the inferior parietal lobule resulting in the inability to carry out learned motor acts.

22

What is Gerstmann syndrome?

Lesion in the inferior parietal lobule resulting in finger agnosia, difficulty in reading and writing, and left- right confusion.

23

What is amnesia?

Lesion in the medial temporal lobe causing memory loss.

24

What is Wernicke's receptive aphasia?

Lesion in the posterior superior temporal gyrus resulting in free flowing speech with no content.

25

What is contralateral paralysis?

Lesion of primary motor area resulting in paralysis of the opposite side of the lesion, especially the hand.

26

What is akinesis?

Lesion of the supplementary motor area causing a loss in the ability to initiate movement.

27

What is mutism?

Lesion in the supplementary motor area resulting in a loss of ability to initiate speech (dominant side).

28

What is Broca's expressive aphasia?

Lesion in the dominant hemisphere Broca's area (BA 44 & 45) resulting in jerky, halting speech with content. In addition, aphasia (disturbance in language) may occur.