cervical cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in cervical cancer Deck (14)
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1
Q

what is the cervix

A

cylindrical shaped neck of tissue
joins vagina to uterus
2-3cm long
facilitates entry of sperm into utey

2
Q

what are the endo and ectocervix

A
endocervix = proximal/inner region w/columnar epithelium 
ectocervix = projects into vagina w/stratified squamous epithelium
3
Q

what is the transformation zone

A

where columnar meets squamous eipthelium
site of squamocolumnar junction
most neoplastic changes arise from here

4
Q

describe the squamocolumnar junction

A

junction betwene squamous and columnar epithelium
location on cervix is variable
result of continuous remodeling from uterine growth, cervical enlargement and hormonal status

5
Q

risk factors for cervical cancer

A

low socioeconomics, smoking, oral contraceptives, high-risk sexual partner. genetics

6
Q

structure of HPV

A

small, non-enveloped doucle stranded DNA virus

7
Q

how are there different types of HPV

A

changes in proteins it produces changes the way it interacts with tumour suppressor genes

8
Q

how does HPV drive cervical cancer

A

utilised hosts cellular machinery
E6 inactivates p53 = loss o tumour suppression apoptosis
E7 binds to retinoblastoma = inactivates = inc transcription

9
Q

What is CIN

A

cervical intrapeithelial neoplasia = dysplasia within the cervical epithelium
caused by HPV
CIN 3 = carcinoma in situ

10
Q

how to determine grade of the lesion

A

low0grade squamous intrapethileal = CIN 1= more frequent pap smear
high-grade squamous intraeptihelial = CIN 2 + 3 = colonoscopy

11
Q

sequence of events leading to cervical cancer

A

HPV infection
viral persisitance
progression to dysplatic change
development of invasive cervical cancer

12
Q

describe the clinical manifestaions of early and late stage cervical cancer

A
early = no symptoms 
late = abnormal bleeding (eg after sex), dysuria, pelvic/lower back pain
13
Q

describe the gardasil vaccine

A

hpv vaccine

protects against 90% of cervical cancers

14
Q

describe cervical screening

A

replaced pap smart by idnetidying presence of HPV infection rather than just dysplastic change
only once every 5 years instead of 1-2
same collection method (speculum -> cervical swab -> lab)