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Flashcards in Ch 1 Deck (51):

The ability to detect a stimulus and, perhaps, to turn that detection into a private experience



The act of giving meaning to a detective to sensation



In Philosophy, private conscious experience of sensation or perception



The idea that the mind has and existence separate from the body



The idea that the mind exists as a property of all matter that is, that all matter has consciousness



The science of defining quantitative relationships between physical and psychological events



The minimum distance at which to stimuli are just perceptible as separate

Two point Touch threshold


The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli, what is the minimum change in a stimulus that enables it to be correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus

Just noticeable differenceor difference threshold


The constant of proportionality in Webbers law

Weber fraction


Depreciable describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the just noticeable difference is a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus

Webers law


The principal describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation increase his proportionately to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity

Fletcher's law


The minimum amount of simulation necessary for a person to detect a stimulus 50% of the time

Absolute threshold


A psycho physical method in which many stimuli, ranging from rarely to almost always perceivable are presented one of the time. participants respond to each presentation: "Yes/no" "same/different" and so on

Method of constant stimuli


A psychophysical method in which the particular dimension of a stimulus, or the difference between two stimuli, is varied incrementally until the participant responds differently

Method of limits


A method of limits in which the subject controls the change in the stimulus

Method of adjustment


A psychophysical method in which the participant assigns values according to perceived magnitudes of the stimuli

Magnitude estimation


A printable describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation is proportional to the stimulus magnitude raised to an exponent

Stevens power law


The ability to match the intensities of sensations that come from different sensory modalities. The ability allows insight into sensory differences. For example, a listener might adjust the brightness of the light until it matches the loudness of a tone

Cross modality matching


Super tasters are those individuals who experience the most intense tasting station; for some stimuli, they are dramatically more intense than the medium tasters or non-tasters. Super tasters also tend to experience more intense or Oral burn and oral touch sensation

Super taster


A psychophysical theory that quantifies the response of an observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of noise measures obtain from a series of presentations are sensitivity and criterion of the observer

Signal detection theory


In signal detection theory, and internal threshold that is set by the observer. If the internal responses above criterion, the observer gives one response. Below criterion, the observer gives another response.



In signal detection theory, a value that defines the ease with which in observer can tell the difference between the presence and absence of a stimulus or the difference between stimulus one and stimulus two



In studies of signal detection, the graphical plot of the hit rate as a function of the false alarm rate. If these are the same, points fall on the diagonal, indicating that the observer cannot tell the difference between the presence and absence of the signal. As the observer sensitivity increases the curve bows upward toward the upper left corner. That Point represents a perfect ability to distinguish signal from noise

Receiver operating characteristics curve


A simple, smoothly changing oscillation that repeats across space. Higher frequency sine waves have more oscillation and lower frequencies have fewer oscillations over a given distance. Example one in hearing, a waveform for which variation as a function of time is a sign function also called . Pure tone. Example 2 Envision a pattern for whichvariations in property like brightness or color as a function of space is a sign function

Sine waves


The distance required for one full cycle of oscillation for a sine wave



For hearing, the time required for a full wave link of an acoustic sine wave to pass by a point in space



A fraction of the cycle of the sine wave the scripted in degrees or radiance. And hearing, phase can be used to describe fractions of a period That relate to time



A mathematical procedure by which any signal can be separated into component sine waves at different frequencies. Combining these sine waves will reduce the original signal

Fourier analysis


The number of cycles of a grating per unit of visual angle

Spatial frequency


The number of pairs of dark and bright bars per degree of visual angle

Cycles per degree


A doctrine, formulated by Johannes Muller stating that the nature of a sensation depends on which sensory fibers are stimulated not on how fibers are stimulated

Doctrine of specific nerve energies


12 pairs of nerves that originate in the brainstem and reach sense organs and muscles through openings in the skull

Cranial nerves


The first pair of cranial nerves. The axons of the olfactory sensory Neurons bundled together after passing through the cribriform play to form the old factory nerve which conducts impulses from the olfactory epithelium in the nose to the olfactory bulb

Olfactory nerves


The second pair of cranial nerves which arise from the retina and carry visual information to the thalamus and other parts of the brain

Optic nerves


The eighth pair of cranial nerves which connects the inner ear with the brain transmitting impulses concerned with hearing and spa deal orientations. Vestibulocochlear nerve is composed of the cochlear nerve branch and the vestibular nerve branch



The third pair of cranial nerves which innervate all be extrinsic muscles of the eye except the lateral rectus and superior oblique muscles and which innervate the elevator muscle of the upper eyelid the ciliary muscle and the sphincter muscle of the pupil

Oculomotor nerve


The fourth pair of cranial nerves which innervate the superior oblique muscles of the eyeball

Trochlear nerve


The six pair of cranial nerve which innervate the lateral rectus muscle of the eyeball

Abducens nerve


Referring to blending multiple sensory systems



The idea that there is a fourth in life that is distinct from physical entities



The junction between neurons that permit information transfer



I chemical substance used in neuronal communication at synapses



A set of methods that generate images of the structure and or function of the brain. In many cases these methods allow us to examine the brain in living, behaving humans



A technique that using many electrodes on the scalp measured electrical activity from populations of many neurons in the brain



A measure of electrical activity from a sub population of neurons in response to particular stimuli that requires averaging many EEG recordings

Event related potential


A technique similar to electroencephalography that measures changes in magnetic activity across populations of many neurons in the brain



An imaging technology that uses x-rays to create images of slices through volumes of material

Computed tomography


And imaging technology that uses the responses of Adams too strong magnetic fields to form images of the structures like the brain. The method can be adapted to measure activities in the brain as well

Magnetic resonance imaging


A very of magnetic resonance imaging that makes it possible to measure localize patterns of activity in the brain. Activated neurons provoke increased blood flow, which can be qualified by measuring changes in the response of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to strong magnetic field's

Functional magnetic resonance imaging


The ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated hemoglobin that permits the location of brain neurons that are most involved in a task

Blood oxygen level dependent


An imaging technology that enables us to define locations in the brain where neurons are especially active by measuring the metabolism of brain cells using save radioactive isotopes

Positron emission tomography