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Flashcards in Ch 1 Deck (51):
1

The ability to detect a stimulus and, perhaps, to turn that detection into a private experience

Sensation

2

The act of giving meaning to a detective to sensation

Perception

3

In Philosophy, private conscious experience of sensation or perception

Quality

4

The idea that the mind has and existence separate from the body

Dualism

5

The idea that the mind exists as a property of all matter that is, that all matter has consciousness

Panpsyism

6

The science of defining quantitative relationships between physical and psychological events

Psychophysics

7

The minimum distance at which to stimuli are just perceptible as separate

Two point Touch threshold

8

The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli, what is the minimum change in a stimulus that enables it to be correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus

Just noticeable differenceor difference threshold

9

The constant of proportionality in Webbers law

Weber fraction

10

Depreciable describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the just noticeable difference is a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus

Webers law

11

The principal describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation increase his proportionately to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity

Fletcher's law

12

The minimum amount of simulation necessary for a person to detect a stimulus 50% of the time

Absolute threshold

13

A psycho physical method in which many stimuli, ranging from rarely to almost always perceivable are presented one of the time. participants respond to each presentation: "Yes/no" "same/different" and so on

Method of constant stimuli

14

A psychophysical method in which the particular dimension of a stimulus, or the difference between two stimuli, is varied incrementally until the participant responds differently

Method of limits

15

A method of limits in which the subject controls the change in the stimulus

Method of adjustment

16

A psychophysical method in which the participant assigns values according to perceived magnitudes of the stimuli

Magnitude estimation

17

A printable describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation is proportional to the stimulus magnitude raised to an exponent

Stevens power law

18

The ability to match the intensities of sensations that come from different sensory modalities. The ability allows insight into sensory differences. For example, a listener might adjust the brightness of the light until it matches the loudness of a tone

Cross modality matching

19

Super tasters are those individuals who experience the most intense tasting station; for some stimuli, they are dramatically more intense than the medium tasters or non-tasters. Super tasters also tend to experience more intense or Oral burn and oral touch sensation

Super taster

20

A psychophysical theory that quantifies the response of an observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of noise measures obtain from a series of presentations are sensitivity and criterion of the observer

Signal detection theory

21

In signal detection theory, and internal threshold that is set by the observer. If the internal responses above criterion, the observer gives one response. Below criterion, the observer gives another response.

Criterion

22

In signal detection theory, a value that defines the ease with which in observer can tell the difference between the presence and absence of a stimulus or the difference between stimulus one and stimulus two

Sensitivity

23

In studies of signal detection, the graphical plot of the hit rate as a function of the false alarm rate. If these are the same, points fall on the diagonal, indicating that the observer cannot tell the difference between the presence and absence of the signal. As the observer sensitivity increases the curve bows upward toward the upper left corner. That Point represents a perfect ability to distinguish signal from noise

Receiver operating characteristics curve

24

A simple, smoothly changing oscillation that repeats across space. Higher frequency sine waves have more oscillation and lower frequencies have fewer oscillations over a given distance. Example one in hearing, a waveform for which variation as a function of time is a sign function also called . Pure tone. Example 2 Envision a pattern for whichvariations in property like brightness or color as a function of space is a sign function

Sine waves

25

The distance required for one full cycle of oscillation for a sine wave

Wavelength

26

For hearing, the time required for a full wave link of an acoustic sine wave to pass by a point in space

Period

27

A fraction of the cycle of the sine wave the scripted in degrees or radiance. And hearing, phase can be used to describe fractions of a period That relate to time

Phase

28

A mathematical procedure by which any signal can be separated into component sine waves at different frequencies. Combining these sine waves will reduce the original signal

Fourier analysis

29

The number of cycles of a grating per unit of visual angle

Spatial frequency

30

The number of pairs of dark and bright bars per degree of visual angle

Cycles per degree

31

A doctrine, formulated by Johannes Muller stating that the nature of a sensation depends on which sensory fibers are stimulated not on how fibers are stimulated

Doctrine of specific nerve energies

32

12 pairs of nerves that originate in the brainstem and reach sense organs and muscles through openings in the skull

Cranial nerves

33

The first pair of cranial nerves. The axons of the olfactory sensory Neurons bundled together after passing through the cribriform play to form the old factory nerve which conducts impulses from the olfactory epithelium in the nose to the olfactory bulb

Olfactory nerves

34

The second pair of cranial nerves which arise from the retina and carry visual information to the thalamus and other parts of the brain

Optic nerves

35

The eighth pair of cranial nerves which connects the inner ear with the brain transmitting impulses concerned with hearing and spa deal orientations. Vestibulocochlear nerve is composed of the cochlear nerve branch and the vestibular nerve branch

Vestibulocochlear

36

The third pair of cranial nerves which innervate all be extrinsic muscles of the eye except the lateral rectus and superior oblique muscles and which innervate the elevator muscle of the upper eyelid the ciliary muscle and the sphincter muscle of the pupil

Oculomotor nerve

37

The fourth pair of cranial nerves which innervate the superior oblique muscles of the eyeball

Trochlear nerve

38

The six pair of cranial nerve which innervate the lateral rectus muscle of the eyeball

Abducens nerve

39

Referring to blending multiple sensory systems

Polysensory

40

The idea that there is a fourth in life that is distinct from physical entities

Vitalism

41

The junction between neurons that permit information transfer

Synapse

42

I chemical substance used in neuronal communication at synapses

Neurotransmitters

43

A set of methods that generate images of the structure and or function of the brain. In many cases these methods allow us to examine the brain in living, behaving humans

Neuroimaging

44

A technique that using many electrodes on the scalp measured electrical activity from populations of many neurons in the brain

Electroencephalograph

45

A measure of electrical activity from a sub population of neurons in response to particular stimuli that requires averaging many EEG recordings

Event related potential

46

A technique similar to electroencephalography that measures changes in magnetic activity across populations of many neurons in the brain

Magnetoencephalopathy

47

An imaging technology that uses x-rays to create images of slices through volumes of material

Computed tomography

48

And imaging technology that uses the responses of Adams too strong magnetic fields to form images of the structures like the brain. The method can be adapted to measure activities in the brain as well

Magnetic resonance imaging

49

A very of magnetic resonance imaging that makes it possible to measure localize patterns of activity in the brain. Activated neurons provoke increased blood flow, which can be qualified by measuring changes in the response of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to strong magnetic field's

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

50

The ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated hemoglobin that permits the location of brain neurons that are most involved in a task

Blood oxygen level dependent

51

An imaging technology that enables us to define locations in the brain where neurons are especially active by measuring the metabolism of brain cells using save radioactive isotopes

Positron emission tomography