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Flashcards in Ch 1 - Deck (63):
1

what is frequency measured/ expressed in?

hertz (Hz)

1 Hz = 1 cycle per second

2

what influences frequency?

mass
length
stiffness

3

what influences intensity?

force
pressure
power

4

what is intensity measured/ expressed in?

decibel (dB)

1 dB = 1/10 Bel

5

who is Hz named after?

Heinrich Hertz

6

who is the Decibel named after?

Alexander G. Bell

7

resonance

the continuation of sound due to reflection.
resonant frequency

8

sound pressure

the deviations in the pressure (deviations from atmospheric pressure) caused by a sound wave.

9

Explain sine waves

- a sine wave/ sinusoid represents a single pure tone
- different aspects of the sine wave are used to represent different properties of the sound.

10

what is displacement?

occurs when a object is moved from one point to another point.
(ex. tuning fork)

11

what is the order of a sine wave?

resting
outward displacement
resting
inward displacement

repeat!

12

what is a cycle?

movement away from one point and return movement to the same point in the same direction.

13

what is a period?

the same time required for the completion of the complete cycle of movement.

14

what is the frequency determined by in sine waves?

-the number of cycles of the sound occurring in 1 second (time)
- the distance from the initial point on a sine wave to a second point 360 degrees after the initial point (distance)

15

what is a phase?

the phase of a sine wave is the point at which the wave begins.

16

what is considered the starting phase for a sine waves?

o degrees

17

waves that start in the same point are what?

in phase

18

waveforms with different starting points are what?

out of phase

19

an opposite phase is used to describe what?

180 degrees out of phase

20

what is damping?

-decreased vibration due to resistance.
-the amplitude in a waveform decay or fade away overtime.
-begins almost immediately, and the amplitude of the displacement gradually decreases

21

what is a pure tone?

a sound with a waveform that exhibits sinusoidal wave motion and consists of only one frequency.

22

what is a sound complex or a complex sound?

a soundith a non- sinusoidal waveform and consists of multiple frequencies.

23

how is sound level measured and quantified?

with a sound level meter

24

what does a sound level meter consist of/ do?

-microphone
-detects sound
-converts acoustic energy to an electrical signal then its quantified in decibels
- a meter
- a needle or a digital display, representing the measured sound level.

25

why is intensity calibration important?

for accurate hearing research and hearing results

26

The term standing waves refers to a negative interaction of sound waves that can affect hearing tests.
true or false?

True

27

A speech pathologist must have a good grasp of how hearing loss affects communication in order to adequately diagnose and manage communication disorders.
True or false?

True

28

Pure tones are considered to be complex sounds while most of the everyday sounds we hear are considered simple sounds.
True or false?

False

29

____________ is the subjective perception of the frequency of a sound while _______________ is the subjective perception of the intensity of a sound.

Pitch; loudness

30

Last quiz, you answered questions about the scientific/physical properties of sound while this week the topic of _____________________ describes the human perception of sound.

Psychoacoustics

31

Apex

the low-frequency region of the cochlea at the opposite end from the base near the stapes.

32

Auricle

outer ear consisting of cartilage.

33

Central auditory nervous system (CANS)

The auditory system beginning with the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem and including also pathways and auditory regions in the thalamus and the cerebrum.

34

cerebral cortex

the thin outermost layer of the cerebrum. The auditory cortex is located on the superior surface of the temporal lobe in the cerebrum.

35

cochlea

the inner ear located within the temporal bone of the skull. The cochlea consists of important structures for hearing, including the inner and outer hair cells, the basilar membrane, the stria vascularis, and many other structures.

36

concha

the bowl shaped region of the outer ear that helps to collect sound before it passes into the external auditory auditory canal.

37

cortilymph

the thick fluid located within the organ of corti and cochlea.

38

efferent auditory system

the descending auditory pathways in the central

39

efferent auditory system

The descending auditory pathways in the central nervous system that serve an inhibitory function. the efferent system ends with efferent fibers that connect with hair cells in the inner ear.

40

Endolymph

A thick fluid in the auditory and vestibular portions of inner ear and specifically within the scala media.

41

eustation tube

A passageway that permits communication between the middle ear space on each side and the posterior region of the mouth (the nasopharynx).

42

external ear canal

the passageway or channel in the outer ear leading from the concha to the tympanic membrane.

43

Incus

second ossicle within the middle ear space that is connected laterally to the malleus and medially to the stapes.

44

Inner hair cells

very small cells arranged in a single row in the cochlea with stereocilia ("hairs") on the top that communicate with auditory nerve fibers at the bottom. There are about 3500 inner hair cells in a human cochlea.

45

labyrinth

the complex fluid-filled passageways within the auditory and vestibular portions of the ear that are enclosed within the temporal bone including the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth.

46

malleus

the first of the three tiny bones (ossicles) connecting the tympanic membrane to the inner surface of the tympanic membrane and can usually be seen with otoscopic examination of the ear

47

organ of corti

the sensory organ of hearing is located on the basilar membrane of the cochlea (inner ear). It contains inner and outer hair cells as well as supporting cells. Mechanical energy is transduced to bioelectrical energy is at the organ of corti.

48

outer hair cells

very small and highly metabolic cells arranged in three to four rows in the cochlea with more than 100 stereocilia ("hairs") on top.Outer hair cells are capacity of motility or changes in shape with activation by sound. there are about 12,000 outer hair cells in the human cochlea.

49

oval window

one of two openings in the inner ear (cochlea) from the middle ear space. Vibrations transmitted through the middle ear are sent via the stapes footplate through oval window in to the inner ear.

50

perilymph

thick fluid within the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani in the cochlea and also within the vestibular portion of the ear.

51

peripheral auditory system

the portion of the auditory system that includes the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear, and the auditory nerves.

52

pinna

the most visible outer portion of the ear consisting of a cartilage framework. The auricle. Parts of the pinna are the helix, the lobe, and the concha. The word pinna is derived from the latin word for feather or wing.

53

round window

one of the two openings in the bony wall of the inner ear connecting the inner ear to the middle ear. The round window, which is covered with thin membrane, acts as a pressure release valve permitting movement of inner ear fluids with movement of the stapes footplate

54

stapedius muscle

the smallest muscle in the human body, attached to the posterior portion of the neck of the stapes and inverted bya branch of the seventh (facial) cranial nerve. The stapedius muscle contracts in response to high intensity sounds.

55

stapes

A tiny stirruped-shaped bone (ossicle) within the medial portion of the middle ear space connecting another ossicle (the incus) to the oval window of the cochlea

56

temporal bone

A very hard skull bone enclosing the external ear canal, the middle and inner ear, and within the internal auditory canal, the eighth (auditory) cranial nerve.

57

temporal lobes

one of the four major lobes of the brain. Auditory regions are located in the temporal lobe.

58

thalamus

A sub-cortical oval shaped structure on each side of the central nervous system that serves as a major relay station for sensory pathways (auditory visual, somatosensory) between the brainstem and the cortex. The medial geniculate body, an important auditory structure, is located on the posterior portion of thalamus

59

traveling waves

systematic movements of the basilar membrane progressing from the base near the stapes footplate toward the apex. Deformations of the basilar membrane activate the outer and inner hair cells in the cochlea.

60

tympanic membrane

three-layer membrane that vibrates in response to even very small levels of sound. The outer layer consists of skin, the middle layer connective tissue, and the inner layer is mucous membrane. Commonly called the eardrum

61

vestibular system

portion of the nervous system that is responsible for maintaining a person's equilibrium and position in space. The vestibular system consists of structures in the ear, vestibular nerves, and collections of vestibular nerves in the brainstem with connections also to eye muscles and large muscle groups in the trunk of the body.

62

Which of the following is NOT true about the auditory cortex?

It is also called Heschl gyrus

63

The central auditory system has efferent and afferent pathways.
True or false?

True