Ch. 1 and 2 Rhetorical Terms Flashcards Preview

AP Language > Ch. 1 and 2 Rhetorical Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1 and 2 Rhetorical Terms Deck (29):
1

rhetorical triangle (Aristotelian triangle)

diagram that illustrates the interrelationship among the speaker, audience, and subject in determining a text

2

concession

an acknowledgement that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable. In a strong argument, a concession is usually accompanied by a refutation challenging the validity of the opposing argument.

3

connotation

meanings or associations that readers have with a word beyond its dictionary definition, or denotation. Usually positive or negative, and can greatly affect the author's tone.

4

context

the circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding a text

5

ethos

Greek for "character." Speakers appeal to ethos to demonstrate credibility on a given topic. Established both by who you are and what you say.

6

logos

Greek for "embodied thought." Speakers appeal to logos, or reason, by offering clear, rational ideas and using specific details, examples, facts, and statistics.

7

occasion

the time and place a speech is given or a piece is written

8

pathos

Greek for "suffering" or "experience." Speakers appeal to pathos to emotionally motivate their audience.

9

persona

Greek for "mask." The face or character that a speaker shows to his or her audience.

10

polemic

Greek for "hostile." An aggressive argument that tries to establish the superiority of one's opinion over others. Polemics generally do not concede that opposing opinions have merit.

11

propoganda

the spread of ideas and information to further a cause

12

refutation

a denial of the validity of an opposing argument. In order to sound reasonable, usually follow a concession.

13

rhetoric

the art of finding ways to persuade an audience

14

rhetorical appeals

techniques used to persuade an audience by emphasizing what they find most important or compelling

15

SOAPS

Elements that make up the rhetorical situation: mnemonic device that stands for Subject, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, and Speaker.

16

anaphora

repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines

17

antimetabole

repetition of words in reverse order

18

antithesis

opposition, or contrast, of ideas or words in a parallel construction
"Support any friend, oppose any foe..."

19

asyndeton

omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words
"We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship..."

20

cumulative sentence

sentence that completes the main idea at the beginning of the sentence and then builds and adds on

21

hortative sentence

sentence that implores or calls to action
"Let both sides explore what problems unite us..."

22

imperative sentence

used to command or enjoin
"Ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man."

23

inversion

introverted order of words in a sentence (variation of the subject-verb-subject order) "Divided there is little we can do."

24

juxtaposition

placement of two things closely together to highlight similarities or differences

25

oxymoron

paradoxical juxtaposition of words that seem to contradict one another
"peaceful revolution"

26

parallelism

similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses

27

periodic sentence

sentence whose main clause is withheld until the end
"To the United Nations, our last best hope...we renew our support"

28

synedoche

figure of speech that uses part to represent a whole
For example: White House represents America

29

zeugma

use of two different words in a grammatically similar way that produces different, often incongruous, meanings
"...not a call to bear arms, though arms we need--not a call to battle, though embattled we are..."