Flashcards in Ch. 1 - Evolve Quiz Questions Deck (20):
Which of the following statements is TRUE of local anesthesia?
a) Local anesthesia eliminates the feeling of sensation w/o loss of consciousness.
b) Local anesthesia is an unpleasant sensory & emotional experience.
c) Local anesthesia eliminates the feeling of sensation through loss of consciousness.
d) Local anesthesia is never necessary for dental hygiene appointments.
A) LOCAL ANESTHESIA ELIMINATES THE FEELING OF SENSATION W/O LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS.
[Local anesthesia is the method of pain management that eliminates the feeling of sensation by numbing a localized area. Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory & emotional experience. General anesthesia is the method of pain management through loss of consciousness. Dental hygienists often treat patients w/painful gingival &/or periodontal infections requiring the administration of local anesthesia.]
Which of the following methods of pain control did NOT pave the way for modern anesthetics?
a) Scaring off demons
b) Herbs and plants (roots, berries, seeds)
c) Therapeutic massage
d) Alcohol, cannabis, & opium
C) THERAPEUTIC MASSAGE
[Therapeutic massage was NOT a forerunner to modern anesthetics. Scaring off demons was a religious technique used in the earliest methods of pain control. Early use of plants & herbs was a prominent method of pain control. Cannabis, opium, & alcohol all played a significant role in early methods of pain control.]
The first effective gas inhalation anesthetic was:
a) nitrous oxide.
d) acetylated salicylic acid.
[Nitrous oxide anesthesia developed after ether. Halothane was introduced after both nitrous oxide & ether. Acetylated salicylic acid is NOT an inhalable gas.]
The first local anesthetic was:
[Cocaine: 1884; Novocaine: 1905; Lidocaine: 1943; Articaine: 1969]
Which of the following is the most popular anesthetic used in dentistry?
[Procaine (aka Novocaine) is less potent & has a greater potential for allergic reaction. Mepivacaine, typically used for short-duration pulpal anesthesia, is used less often.]
Local anesthetics _____ the pain signal to the brain.
a) have no effect
[Local anesthetics do have an effect on the pain signal to the brain. The pain signal must be stopped/blocked, not merely slowed, for effective local anesthesia.]
Which of the following advantages is/are associated w/use of a local anesthetic?
b) Pain control
c) No memory of the procedure
d) Both A & B
D) BOTH A & B
[Local anesthesia blocks the pain signal to the brain & acts as a vasoconstrictor, reducing bleeding in the affected area. The use of local anesthesia will NOT have an effect on the patient's memory.]
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a) States are more likely to allow DHs to administer local anesthesia than they are to allow them to administer nitrous oxide.
b) States are more likely to allow DHs to administer nitrous oxide than they are to allow them to administer local anesthesia.
c) DHs are not currently permitted to administer nitrous oxide in the U.S.
d) None of the above
A) STATES ARE MORE LIKELY TO ALLOW DHs TO ADMINISTER LOCAL ANESTHESIA THAN THEY ARE TO ALLOW THEM TO ADMINISTER NITROUS OXIDE.
[44 states allow DHs to administer local anesthesia, but only 28 states permit DHs to administer nitrous oxide.]
Which of the following defines pain threshold?
a) A neurologic experience of pain
b) The personal interpretation & response to the pain message
c) The point at which a sensation becomes painful, resulting in discomfort
d) A method or tool used to measure pain
C) THE POINT AT WHICH A SENSATION BECOMES PAINFUL, RESULTING IN DISCOMFORT
[Pain perception is the neurologic experience of pain. Pain reaction is the personal interpretation & response to the pain message. A VAS is an instrument used to measure pain.]
A patient's pain reaction may be influenced by his/her:
c) emotional state.
d) all of the above
D) ALL OF THE ABOVE
[Pain reaction is highly variable among patients & may be influenced by emotional state, fatigue, age, culture, & fear or apprehension.]
A Visual Analog Scale (VAS) is used to:
a) locate pain.
b) measure pain.
c) block pain receptors.
d) constrict blood vessels.
B) MEASURE PAIN
[A VAS cannot locate or block pain & has no effect on the body at all. It is used instead to gauge & rate the amount of pain that a patient feels.]
The relationship between a patient's needs & behavior is best defined as:
a) the human needs paradigm.
c) the tension paradigm.
d) dental phobia.
A) THE HUMAN NEEDS PARADIGM
[Stress is defined as a physical & emotional response to a situation. The tension paradigm is not a valid term. Dental phobia is a significant fear of dentistry.]
The majority of patients who experience dental anxiety trace the onset of fear to:
c) childhood or adolescence.
C) CHILDHOOD OR ADOLESCENCE
[From 50%-85% of patients who experience dental anxiety report the onset of fear during their childhood or adolescence.]
The health & dental history review is an opportune time to detect signs of patient anxiety. Which of the following signs would indicate a patient is fearful of dental treatment?
a) Elevated BP, decreased heart rate, & relaxed posture
b) Low BP, decreased respiration rate, pupil dilation
c) Elevated BP, rapid heart rate, & cold, sweaty palms
d) Dry mouth, decreased heart rate, decreased respiration rate
C) ELEVATED BP, RAPID HEART RATE, & COLD, SWEATY PALMS
[Decreased heart rate, relaxed posture, low BP, & decreased respiration rate are not physiologic signs of anxiety.]
Scheduling a _____ _____ appointment can help prevent apprehension in the anxious patient.
a) short midweek
b) long afternoon
c) short evening
d) long morning
A) SHORT MIDWEEK
[Stress levels can be reduced in patients w/dental anxiety by scheduling these patients for shorter appointments earlier in the day &, if possible, midweek.]
Although the patient may be apprehensive about receiving an injection, once the anesthesia is administered its effect will help attain the patient's human need for _____ by providing comfort.
[The effect of anesthesia will satisfy the patient's need for safety by providing comfort.]
Which of the following will lower the pain reaction threshold?
c) Emotional distress
d) All of the above
D) ALL OF THE ABOVE
[Fear, fatigue, & emotional distress will all lower the pain reaction threshold.]
_____ is defined as the neurologic experience of pain; it differs little between individuals.
b) Pain reaction
c) Pain perception
d) Pain threshold
C) PAIN PERCEPTION
[Pain perception is the neurologic experience of pain.]
_____ is a physical & emotional response to a particular situation.
[Stress is defined as a physical & emotional response to a particular situation.]