CH. 1 Orientation of human body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH. 1 Orientation of human body Deck (88):
1

Palpation:

Feeling organs with hands.

2

Auscultation:

Listen organs with stethoscope.

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Anatomy is the study of...

Form

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Physiology is the study of...

Function

5

I. A&P are related by

Structure determines function
Pathology: Study of structural changes that lead to disease.

6

II. Levels of study: 4

A. Gross (macroscopic) Anatomy
B. Microscopic Anatomy
C. Developmental Anatomy
D. Physiology

7

II. Levels of study
A. Gross (macroscopic) Anatomy:

1. Study of large structures that are easily visible to the naked eye.

2. Subdivisions include regional, systemic and surface anatomy

8

II. Levels of study
B. Microscopic Anatomy

1. Study of very small structures that can only be viewed with a microscope

2. Subdivisions include Cytology (cells) and Histology (Tissue)

9

II. Levels of study
C. Developmental Anatomy

1. Study of structural changes that occur in the body in the body throughout the life span.

2. Subdivisions include embryology (changes occurring before birth)

10

II. Levels of study
1. Physiology:

Renal Physiology: Urine Production
Neurophysiology: Nervous system
Cardiovascular physiology: Heart, blood vessels.

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III. Levels of structural Organization (7)

Chemicals
Organelles
Cells
Tissue (4)
Organs
Organ system (11)
Organism

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Chemicals

Atoms: building blocks of matter form molecules of water and proteins that form Organelles.

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Organelles

.

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Cells

Smallest unit of living things (simple organism) have only cells.

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Tissue (4)

Cells that have a common function.
1.Epithilium: Covers body surface.
2. Muscle: movement
3. Connective: Support, protects organs
4. Nervous: Communication rapid impulses.



For example the stomach lining has all of these.

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Organs:

Have 2 to 4 tissues.
They have a specific function.

17

IV. Organs Systems: (11)

1. Intergumentary System
2. Skeletal System
3. Muscular System
4. Nervous System
5. Endocrine System
6. Cardiovascular System
7. Lymphatic Immunity
8. Respiratory System
9. Digestive System
10. Urinary System
11. Reproductive System

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Organism:

All structures working together.

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Organ System
1. Intergumentary System:

Skin, hair, and nails that covers the body. Houses pain receptors, sweat, oil glands, and makes Vitamin D

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Organ System
2. Skeletal System:

Protects, supports organs. Movement. Forms blood cells, stores minerals.

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Organ System
3. Muscular System:

Locomotion, facial recognition, posture, heat, manipulation of environment.

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Organ System
4. Nervous System:

Fast acting, responds to internal and external changes.

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Organ System
5.Endocrine System:

Glands (hormones) regulate growth, nutrients, reproductive.

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Organ System
6. Cardiovascular System:

Heart, blood transports, CO2, O2, nutrients waste.

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Organ System
7. Lymphatic/ Immunity:

Disposes debris leaked fluid houses white blood cells, attacks foreign

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Organ System
8. Respiratory System:

Controls Oxygen In and Carbon dioxide Out.

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Organ System
9. Digestive System:

Breaks food down to cells to feces.

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Organ System
10. Urinary System:

transports nitrogenous waste out regulates water, electrolytes balances acids and bases in the blood.

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Organ System
11. Reproductive System:

males have sperm from testes and females have eggs from ovaries. Mammary glands to feed young.

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V. Maintaining Life:
A. Necessary Life Functions

1. Maintaining Boundaries
2. Movement
3. Responsiveness
4. Digestion
5. Metabolism
6. Excretion
7. Reproduction
8. Growth

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V. Maintaining Life:
A. Necessary Life Functions

1. Maintaining boundaries:

Internal
External

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V. Maintaining Life:
A. Necessary Life Functions

2. Movement:

A. Locomotion: Muscular, run, swim, fingers (place to place). Skeletal framework muscles pull on

B. Transport of substances throughout the body( Cardiovascular, Digestive, Urinary)

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V. Maintaining Life:
A. Necessary Life Functions

3. Responsiveness:

Excitability (nervous system is most involved)
Don’t think: Chemical sensors send messages to brain controlling respiration to breathe faster.

Ex: involuntarily pull away from danger/ pain

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V. Maintaining Life:
A. Necessary Life Functions

4. Digestion:

Breakdown and absorption of nutrients to simple molecules to blood by cardiovascular system.

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V. Maintaining Life:
A. Necessary Life Functions

5. Metabolism:

All chemicals reactions within the body. Regulated by hormones in endocrine system.
Depend on digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular

A. Catabolism: breaks things down smaller.
B. Anabolism: builds things up (makes body structures) Small> Big
C. Production of Energy (ATP): Nutrients+Oxygen=ATP [Energy rich molecules that power cellular activities]

36

V. Maintaining Life:
A. Necessary Life Functions

6. Excretion:

Elimination of wastes from metabolic reactions

1. Digestive: indigestible food
2. Urinary: Urea (nitrogen)
3. Respiratory: CO2 to lungs by exhaling

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V. Maintaining Life:
A. Necessary Life Functions

7. Reproduction:

Production of offspring.
Regulated by Endocrine System (hormones)

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V. Maintaining Life:
A. Necessary Life Functions

8. Growth:

Increase in cell size and number.
Constructive activities must occur at a faster rate than deconstructive ones.

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V. Maintaining Life:
B. Survival Needs (life is fragile)

1. Nutrients
2. Oxygen
3. Water
4. Normal body temperature
5. Appropriate atmospheric pressure

40

V. Maintaining Life:
B. Survival Needs

1. Nutrients:

Chemicals for energy and cell building.
Includes carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals from (plants), and fats, lipids from (animals)
(Ex. Calcium to bones and blood clotting)

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V. Maintaining Life:
B. Survival Needs

2. Oxygen:

Required for chemical reactions
Energy released from food is oxidative
´respiratory + cardiovascular

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V. Maintaining Life:
B. Survival Needs

3. Water

60-80 percent of body weight
Involved in metabolic reactions
Necessary for watery environment for chem reaction.

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V. Maintaining Life:
B. Survival Needs

4. Normal Body Temperature:

98.6F 37C
Muscular system generates heat
Metabolic reactions slows if drops
If its too high frantic pace proteins loose their shape and stop functioning.

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V. Maintaining Life:
B. Survival Needs

5. Appropriate atmospheric pressure:

Breathing and gas exchange in lungs atmospheric pressure

High altitude- low pressure- Thin air
Inadequate gas exchange for cell metabolism.

45

VI. Homeostasis:

Maintaining a stable internal environment within narrow limits regardless of environmental changes

Dynamic state of equilibrium, balance.
The body is in homeostasis if the body needs are met

¨steady rudde¨

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VI. Homeostasis:
A. Homeostasis

Must be maintained for normal body functioning and to sustain life.

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B. Maintaining Homeostasis:
1. Body communicates through...

Neuronal and Hormonal control system

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B. Maintaining Homeostasis:
1. a. Receptors:

·Receptor -Sensor: responds to changes in the environment (stimuli)

·Sends info to the control center.

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B. Maintaining Homeostasis:
1. b. Control Center

Determines set point: normal value the body is designed maintain for variable.

Analyzes input determines appropriate response. Body usually operates within normal range
Ex. 37C body temp

Analyzes information

Determines appropriate response of course of action

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B. Maintaining Homeostasis
1. c. Effector (muscles or glands)

Executes response
Influence the effect of the stimulus reduce-off enhance- fast rate.

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VI. Homeostasis:
B. Maintaining homeostasis
Afferent Pathway

Receptor (Input)
to
Control Center (Output)

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VI. Homeostasis:
B. Maintaining Homeostasis
Efferent Pathway

Control Center (Output)
To
Effector

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VI. Homeostasis:
C. Feedback Mechanisms of Homeostasis (2)

1. Negative Feedback
2. Positive Feedback ¨cascades¨

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C. Feedback Mechanisms of Homeostasis
1. Negative Feedback

A. Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms. Ex. Heart rate, blood pressure, body temp, respiration rate blood glucose, O2 and CO2 levels.

B. Shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity. Ex. Moves the variable back to the set point .

C. Works like a hoodie hold thermostat


More than 100 neg fb
Big temp, blood sugar, b pressure, heart rate, O2 blood, CO2, minerals.
Body-brain hypothalamus ¨withdrawl reflex¨
Ïdeal Value¨cause variable change in direct opposite to that of initial change.

Ex. Blood sugar glucose by insulin, pancreas (c.center)insulin to blood prompts body to absorb glucose when it stops insulin ends.

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C. Feedback Mechanisms of Homeostasis
2. Positive Feedback

A. Has an amplifying effect that increases the original stimulus to push the variable further away from the set point.

B. Only normal occurances are in blood clotting, birth of a baby, and sexual response

Do not require cont adjustments deviating from original value.
Local effect doesn’t spread out in body.

Others are the result of pathology and are harmful
Ex. Heart attack due to restricted blood flow to the heart eventually results in less cardiac output which again decreases blood flow.

56

D. Homeostatic Imbalance:

1. A disturbance in homeostasis resulting in decrease.

2. May be caused by infection, injury or genetic abnormality

If neg. f. Fails Pos. F. Takes over (heart failure)
Internal environment is less stable
Abnormal : older with age control system become less efficient and increases risk of illness.

57

VII. The Language of Anatomy

A. Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding used for

B.
1. Position
2.Direction.
3. Regions
4. Structures

58

VII. The Language of Anatomy
C. Orientation and Directional Terms

1. Proper anatomical Position
Stand straight feet slightly apart palms forward thumbs out.

Point of reference Right and left of person NOT observer

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VII. The Language of Anatomy
C. Orientation and Directional Terms
2. Directional Terms


A Superior / Inferior
B Anterior (ventral) /Posterior (dorsal)
C Medial / Lateral
D Proximal / Distal
E Superficial / Deep

60

VII. The Language of Anatomy
C. Orientation and Directional Terms
3. Regional Terms

a. Axial
- Head
- Neck
- Trunk

b. Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis

c. Appendicular

d. Specific Body Areas

61

VII. The Language of Anatomy
D. Body Planes and Sections

1. Frontal (coronal)
2. Traverse (cross section)- horizontal plane
3. Median or Midsagittal
4. Sagittal (para=near)
5. Oblique

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VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes

1. Dorsal Cavity
2. Ventral Cavity
3. Other Body Cavaties

63

VII. The Language of Anatomy
F. Abdominal Regions and Quadrants

H

64

VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
1. Dorsal Cavity

Composed of the cranial and vertebral (spinal) cavities.

65

VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
2. Ventral Cavity

Contains Visceral (Internal) organs, Thoracic, Mediastinum(pericardial), abdominopelvic cavaties.
Membranes
Other body cavaties

66

VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
2. Ventral Cavity
-Visceral organs

Internal organs

67

VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
2. Ventral Cavity
-Thoracic

Surrounded by ribs and chest muscles
Subdivided into lateral
-Pleural cavaties each enveloping a lung and the medial mediastinum.

68

VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
2. Ventral Cavity
- Abdominopelvic

A dome shaped muscle important in breathing

Superior: Abdominal cavity- stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, etc.

Inferior: Pelvic Cavity- bladder, rectum, reproductive

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VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
c. Membranes

Line the cavaties and cover outside of organs -Serosa

Named by lining location + cavity word

70

VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
c. Membranes

Thoracic cavity lined by...

Parietal + pleura =Parietal pleura

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VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
c. Membranes


Thoracic organs covered by...

Visceral pleura
(Lungs)

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VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
c. Membranes

Abdominopelvic cavity lined by...

Parietal peritoneum

73

VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
c. Membranes


Abdominopelvic organs covered by...

Visceral peritoneum

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VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
c. Membranes


Pericardial cavity lined by...

Parietal pericardium

75

VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
c. Membranes


Pericardial organ (heart) covered by...

visceral pericardium

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VII. The Language of Anatomy
E. Body Cavaties and Membranes
3. Other body Cavities

Oral / digestive cavity: mouth, teeth, tongue to anus.

Nasal: posterior to nose, respiratory system.

Orbital cavity: eyes anterior position.

Middle ear cavity: medial to eardrums contain bones to transmit vibrations to receptors in inner ear.

Synovial cavity: Joint cavity secrete lube fluid reduces friction enclosed fibrous capsules surround joints of the body,

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VII. The Language of Anatomy
F. Abdominal Regions and Cavities

1. 9 regions
2. 4 quadrants
RUQ: Right UpperQ LUQ:Left UpperQ
RLQ:Right Lower Q. LLQ: Left Lower Q

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Superior (cranial)

Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above.

Ex: The head is superior to the abdomen

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Inferior (caudal)

Away front he head end or towards the lower part of a structure or the body; below.

Ex: The navel is inferior to the chin

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Anterior (ventral)*

Toward or at the front of the body; in front of.

Ex: The breastbone is anterior to the spine.

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Posterior (dorsal)*

Toward or at the back of the body; behind.

Ex: The heart is posterior to the breastbone.

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Medial

Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

Ex: The heart is medial to the arm.

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Lateral

Away from te midline of the body; on the outer side of.

Ex: The arms are lateral to the chest.

84

Intermediate

Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.

Ex:The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder.

85

Proximal

Closer to the origin of the body part or the attachment of a limb to the body trunk.

Ex: The elbow is proximal to the wrist.

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Distal

Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.

Ex: The knee is distal to the thigh

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Superficial (External)

Towards or at the body surface.

Ex: The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles.

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Deep (internal)

Away from the body surface; more internal.

Ex: The lungs are deep to the skin..