Ch. 12 - Basics of Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 12 - Basics of Chemistry Deck (56)
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1

acidic solution

A solution that has a pH below 7.0 (neutral).

2

alkaline solution

A solution that has a pH above 7.0 (neutral).

3

alkalis
AL-kuh-lyz

Also known as bases; compounds that react with acids to form salts.

4

alkanolamines
al-kan-oh-LAH-mynz

Alkaline substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products.

5

alpha hydroxy acids
al-FAH Hy-drok-see AS-udz

Abbreviated AHAs; acids derived from plants (mostly fruit) that are often used to exfoliate the skin.

6

ammonia
uh-MOH-nee-uh

Colorless gas with a pungent odor that is composed of hydrogen and nitrogen.

7

anion
An-eye-on

An ion with a negative electrical charge.

8

atoms

The smallest chemical components (often called particles) of an element; structures that make up the element and have the same properties of the element.

9

cation
KAT-eye-on

An ion with a positive electrical charge.

10

chemical change

A change in the chemical composition or make-up of a substance.

11

chemical properties

Characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance.

12

chemistry

Science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter and how matter changes under different conditions.

13

combustion
kum-BUS-chun

Rapid oxidation of a substance accompanied by the production of heat and light.

14

compound molecules
KAHM-pownd MAHL-uh-kyools

Also known as compounds; a chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions.

15

electrons

Subatomic particles with a negative charge.

16

element

The simplest form of chemical matter; an element cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity.

17

elemental molecule
eL-uh-men-tul MAHL-uh-kyool

Molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element in definite (fixed) proportions.

18

emulsifier
ee-MUL-suh-fy-ur

An ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend.

19

emulsion
ee-MUL-shun

An unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier.

20

exothermic reactions
ek-soh-THUR-mik ree-AK-shunz

Chemical reactions that release a significant amount of heat.

21

glycerin
gLIS-ur-in

Sweet, colorless, oily substance used as a solvent and as a moisturizer in skin and body creams.

22

glycolic acid

An alpha hydroxy acid used in exfoliation and to lower the pH of products.

23

immiscible
im-IS-uh-bul

Liquids that are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions.

24

inorganic chemistry

The study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen.

25

ion
eye-on

An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge.

26

ionization
eye-on-ih-ZAy-shun

The separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions.

27

lipophilic
ly-puh-FIL-ik

Having an affinity for or an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving).

28

logarithm
LOg-ah-rhythm

Multiples of 10.

29

matter

Any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).

30

miscible
MIS-uh-bul

Liquids that are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed together to form stable solutions.

31

molecule
MAHL-uh-kyool

A chemical combination of two or more atoms in definite (fixed) proportions.

32

neutrons

Subatomic particles with no charge.

33

oil-in-water emulsion

Abbreviated O/W emulsion; oil droplets emulsified in water.

34

organic chemistry

The study of substances that contain the element carbon.

35

oxidation
ahk-sih-DAy-shun

A chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.

36

oxidation–reduction

Also known as redox (ree-DOCS); a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidized (by gaining oxygen).

37

oxidizing agent

Substance that releases oxygen.

38

pH

The abbreviation used for potential hydrogen. pH represents the quantity of hydrogen ions.

39

pH scale

A measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance; the pH scale has a range of 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. A pH below 7 is an acidic solution; a pH above 7 is an alkaline solution.

40

physical change

A change in the form or physical properties of a substance without a chemical reaction or the creation of a new substance.

41

physical mixture

A physical combination of matter in any proportion.

42

physical properties

Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the substance.

43

protons

Subatomic particles with a positive charge.

44

pure substance

A chemical combination of matter in definite (fixed) proportions.

45

reducing agent

A substance that adds hydrogen to a chemical compound or subtracts oxygen from the compound.

46

silicones
SIL-ih-kohnz

Special type of oil used in hair conditioners, water-resistant lubricants for the skin, and nail polish dryers.

47

solute
SAHL-yoot

The substance that is dissolved in a solution.

48

solution

A stable physical mixture of two or more substances.

49

solvent

The substance that dissolves the solute and makes a solution.

50

states of matter

The three different physical forms of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.

51

surfactants
sur-FAK-tants

A contraction of surface active agents; substances that allow oil and water to mix, or emulsify.

52

suspensions

Unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid.

53

thioglycolic acid
thy-oh-gLy-kuh-lik AS-ud

A colorless liquid or white crystals with a strong unpleasant odor that is used in permanent waving solutions

54

volatile alcohols

Alcohols that evaporate easily.

55

volatile organic compounds

Abbreviated VOCs; compounds that contain carbon (organic) and evaporate very easily (volatile).

56

water-in-oil emulsion

Abbreviated W/O emulsion; water droplets emulsified in oil.