CH. 16 RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES Flashcards Preview

EMT-P (PAR 210-AIRWAY) > CH. 16 RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH. 16 RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES Deck (75):
1

a collection of pus in a sac, formed by necrotic tissues and an accumulation of white blood cells

abscess

2

a type of breath sound that occurs in addition to the normal breath sounds; crackles and wheezes

adventitious

3

the saclike units at the end of the bronchioles where gas exchange takes place

alveoli

4

a vascular reaction that may have an allergic cause and my result in profound swelling of the tongue and lips

angioedema

5

one of the paired, pitcher shaped cartilages at the back of the larynx, at the upper border of the cricoid cartilage

arytenoid cartilage

6

the drawing in and out by suction. Food, liquids or foreign objects can come back up when the patient is unable to protect his or her airway

aspiration

7

the collapse of the alveolar air spaces of the lungs

atelectasis

8

a pharmacologic agent that stimulates the beta-2 receptor sites found in smooth muscle; includes common bronchodilators such as albuterol and levalbuterol

beta-2 agonists

9

poisoning from eating food containing botulinum toxin

botulism

10

sever constriction of the bronchial tree

bronchospasm

11

deep cyanosis of the face and neck and across the chest and back; associated with little or no blood flow

cape cyanosis

12

a ridgelike projection of tracheal cartilage located where the trachea bifurcates in the right and left mainstream bronchi

carina

13

contorted position of the hand or foot in which the fingers or toes flex in a clawlike manner; may result from hyperventilation

carpopedal spasm

14

a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the bronchi that is characterized by excessive mucus production as a result of overgrowth of the mucus glands in the airways

chronic bronchitis

15

the hairlike microtubule projections on the surface of a cell that can move materials over the cell surface

cilia

16

heart disease that develops because of chronic lung disease, affecting primarily the right side of the heart

cor pulmonale

17

the abnormal breath sounds that have a fine, crackling quality; called rales

crackles

18

the ringlike cartilage forming the lower and back part of the larynx

cricoid cartilage

19

the membrane between the cricoid and thyroid cartilages of the larynx

cricothyroid membrane

20

a common disease of childhood due to upper airway obstruction and characterized by stridor, hoarseness, and a barking cough

croup

21

the portion of the tidal volume that does not reach the alveoli and thus does not participate in gas exchange

dead space

22

the production of large amounts of urine by the kidney

diuresis

23

the infiltration of any tissue by air or gas; a COPD characterized by dissension of the alveoli and destructive changes in the lung parenchyma

emphysema

24

the CO2 contained in the last few millimeters of exhaled air; the unit of measure is a percentage

end tidal CO2

25

nosebleed

epistaxis

26

a sitting position with the head elevated to 90 degrees (sitting straight up)

fowler's position

27

the process by which oxygen depleted blood from the pulmonary circulation releases carbon dioxide and is enriched with oxygen; occurs by diffusion at the interface of the alveoli and pulmonary capillary bed; newly oxygen enriched blood enters the cardiac circulation for distribution to the body's tissue

gas exchange

28

the vocal cords and the opening between them

glottis

29

the mucus producing cells found mainly in the respiratory and intestinal tracts

goblet cells

30

a mesh filter placed in the inferior vena cava to catch blood clots in patients who are at high risk of pulmonary embolus

greenfield filter

31

a disease of unknown cause that involves progressive paralysis that moves from the feet to the head, aka ascending paralysis; if it reaches the diaphragm, then the patient may require respiratory support

Guillan-Barre syndrome

32

the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells; when it has absorbed oxygen in the lungs, it is bright red and called oxyhemoglobin; after oxygen has been given up in the tissues, hemoglobin is purple and called reduced hemoglobin

hemoglobin

33

coughing up of blood

hemoptysis

34

the nervous system mechanism that terminates inhalation and prevents lung overexpansion

hering-breuer reflex

35

to move inadequate volumes of air into the lungs

hypoventilate

36

a dangerous condition in which the supply of oxygen to the tissues is reduced

hypoxia

37

a situation in which a person's stimulus to breathe comes from a decrease in PaO2 rather than the normal stimulus, an increase in PaCO2.

hypoxic drive

38

the visible bulging of the jugular veins when a patient is in semi-fowler's or full fowler's position; indicates inadequate blood movement through the heart and or lungs

jugular venous distension

39

a respiratory pattern characteristic DKA, with marked hyperpnea and tachypnea

kussmaul respirations

40

inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi

laryngotracheobronchitis

41

the organ of voice production

larynx

42

the transfer of a disease form one organ or part of the body to another that is not directly connected to the original site; often used to describe a cancer that has spread to other parts of the body

metastasis

43

the sound of one note during wheezing, caused by vibration of a single bronchus

monophonic

44

severe dyspnea experienced when recumbent and relieved by sitting or standing up

orthopnea

45

one of three sets of lymphatic organs that constitute the tonsils; located in the back of the throat, on each side of the posterior opening of the oral cavity; help protect the body from bacteria introduced into the mouth and nose

palatine tonsils

46

the functional portions of a gland or solid organ

parenchyma

47

severe shortness of breath occurring at night after several hours of recumbency, during which fluid pools in the lungs

paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

48

hollow pockets on the lateral portions of the glottic opening

piriform fossae

49

excessive accumulation of fluid in ht pleural space

pleural effusion

50

inflammation of the lung caused by an infectious agent

pneumonia

51

the production of more red blood cells over time, make the blood thick; characteristic of people with chronic lung disease and chronic hypoxia

polycythemia

52

the sound of multiple motes during wheezing; caused by vibrations of many bronchi

polyphonic

53

a false membrane formed by a dead tissue layer; seen in the posterior pharynx of patients with diphtheria

pseudomembrane

54

weakening or loss of a palpable pulse during inhalation; characteristic of cardiac tamponadeand severe asthma

pulsus paradoxus

55

full of pus

purulent

56

old term for abnormal breath sounds that have a fine, crackling quality; now called crackles

rales

57

a term used to describe any condition that causes hyperreactive bronchioles and bronchospasms

reactive airway disease

58

diseases that limit the ability of the lungs to expand appropriately, Skeletal abnormalities (kyphosis and scoliosis) are a common example

restrictive lung disease

59

the drawing in of the intercostal muscles and the muscles above the clavicles in respiratory distress

retractions

60

coarse, low pitched breath sounds heard in patients who chronically have mucus in the airways

rhonchi

61

a situation in which a portion of the output of the right side of the heart reaches the left side of the heart without being oxygenated in the lungs; may be caused by atelectasis, pulmonary edema.

shunt

62

the non striated involuntary muscle found in the vessel walls, glands, and GI tract

smooth muscle

63

a noise made during inhalation when the upper airway is partially obstructed by the tongue

snoring

64

the devices that collect medication and allows for more medication to be delivered to the lungs and less to the environment

spacers

65

a severe, prolonged asthma attack that cannot be stopped with conventional treatment, such as administration of epinephrine

status asthmaticus

66

the harsh, high pitched sound associated with severe upper airway obstruction, such as that caused by laryngeal edema

stridor

67

a liquid protein that reduces the surface tension of the alveoli and allows for gas exchange

surfactant

68

vibrations in the chest that can be felt with a hand on the chest as the patient breathes

tactile fremitus

69

the amount of air inhaled or exhaled during one breath

tidal volume

70

the opening created during a tracheotomy procedure

tracheostomy

71

surgically opening the trachea to create an airway

tracheostomy

72

a chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually affects the lungs but can also affect other organs such as the brain and kidneys

tuberculosis

73

a set of bony convolutions in the nasopharynx that help to maintain the smooth airflow and warm, humidify, and filter the air as it is inhaled

turbinates

74

a monitoring method that measures the exhaled carbon dioxide level and displays the value numerically and as a waveform tracing

waveform capnography

75

the process of exchanging air between the lungs and the environment; includes inhalation and exhalation

ventilation