ch 17 Flashcards Preview

Psych > ch 17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in ch 17 Deck (59):
1

Counselling and clinical psychologists

- have a PhD (doctor of philosophy) or PsyD (doctor of psychology)
- 5+ years of intensive training and supervision in variety of psychotherapeutic techniques
- training in research and psychological assessment techniques

2

Psychiatrists

medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and biomedical treatments (e.g. drug therapy)

3

Insight

conscious awareness of psychodynamics that underlie their problems

4

Free association

report verbally without censorship any thoughts, feelings, or images that entered awareness

5

Resistance

defensive maneuvers that hinder the process of therapy

6

Transference

occurs when client responds irrationally to the analyst as if he/ she were an important figure from the client’s past`

• Until transference reactions are analyzed and resolved, there can be no full resolution of the client’s problems

7

2 basic forms of transference

1) Positive transference – client transfers feelings of intense affection, dependency, or love to the analyst

2) Negative transference – irrational expressions of anger, hatred, or disappointment

8

Interpretation

any statement by therapist intended to provide client with insight into his or her behaviour of dynamics

9

Interpersonal therapy

form of brief therapy that focuses on client’s interpersonal problems and seeks to develop new interpersonal skills
• Psychodynamic therapy
• 15-20 sessions

10

Carl Rogers discovered 3 important and interrelated therapist attributes

1) Unconditional positive regard – therapists show clients that they genuinely care and accept them, without judgement or evaluation

2) Empathy – willingness and ability to view world through client’s eyes
o Therapist reflects back to client what he/ she said

3) Genuineness – ability of therapist to honestly express his or her feelings to a client

11

Gestalt

perceptual principles through which people actively organize stimulus elements into meaningful “whole” patterns

12

Gestalt therapy

in groups; help clients “get in touch with inner selves”; e.g. role-play

• Goal is to remove blockages to client’s awareness of wholeness of immediate experience by making clients ore aware of their feelings and the ways they interact with each other

13

Empty-chair technique

e.g. told to play mom and yourself; switch between chairs and characters

14

Rational-emotive theory – ABCD model

- Albert Ellis

• A – activating event → triggers emotion
• B – belief system → underlies way in which a person appraises the event
• C – consequences → emotional and behavioral consequences of that appraisal
• D – disputing → changing maladaptive emotions and behaviours by challenging an erroneous belief system

15

Self-instructional training

cognitive coping approach of giving adaptive self-instructions to oneself at crucial phases of the coping process

16

Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT)

identify maladaptive thoughts and behaviours and through therapy, help the patient think more rationally

• Treatment of choice for unipolar depression
• Those successfully treated by CBT showed change in function in limbic system and cortex

17

Exposure

behaviour therapy treatment where clients are presented (in vivo or imagination) with fear-inducing stimuli, allowing extinction to occur

18

Response prevention

prevention of escape or avoidance responses during exposure to an anxiety-arousing CS so that extinction can occur

19

Flooding

treatment in exposure therapy when client is exposed to real-life stimuli

20

Implosion therapy

treatment in exposure therapy when client is asked to imagine scenes involving the stimuli

21

Counterconditioning

new response that is incompatible with anxiety is conditioned to the anxiety-arousing CS

22

Systematic densensitization

eliminate anxiety using counterconditioning

23

Stimulus hierarchy

hierarchy of roughly equal steps from low-anxiety scenes to high-anxiety ones

24

Virtual reality (VR)

use of computer tech to create highly realistic “virtual environments” that simulate actual experience so well that they evoke many of the same reactions that a comparable real-world environment would create

25

In vivo desensitization

controlled exposure of real-life situations

26

Aversion therapy

pair a stimulus that is attractive to a person and that stimulates deviant or self-defeating behaviour (CS) with a with a bad/ noxious UCS to try to condition an aversion to the CS

• E.g. showing a pedophile pictures of kids that looked like the people they assaulted and is paired with an electric shock

27

Behaviour modification

treatment technique that involve application of operant conditioning procedures to increase or decrease a specific behaviour

28

Token economy

system for strengthening desired behaviours (e.g. personal grooming) through systematic application of positive reinforcement

29

Social skills training

learn new skills by observing and then imitating model who performs a socially skillful behaviour

30

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)

- Steven Hayes
- focuses on process of mindfulness as a vehicle for change

31

Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)

treatment developed specially for the treatment of borderline personality disorder

32

Cultural congruence

treatment that is consistent with cultural beliefs and expectations

33

Cultural competence

able to use knowledge about client’s culture to achieve broad understanding of client

34

Most helpful therapist for female client

aware of oppressive environmental conditions; willing to support life goals that do not conform to gender expectations

• Gender of therapist seems less important to outcome than gender sensitivity

35

Specificity question

which types of therapy, administered by which kinds of therapists to which kinds of clients having which kinds of problems, produce which kinds of effects

36

Spontaneous remission

symptom reduction in the absence of any treatment

37

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs)

involve participants who have well-defined psychological disorders and are similar on other variables that might affect response to treatment

38

Placebo control group

gets intervention but is not expected to work but that controls for client expectations of improvement because they think they are getting treatment

39

Meta-analysis

researchers combine results of many studies to arrive at overall conclusion

40

Effect size statistic

represents common measure of treatment effectiveness

• Effect size tells research what percent of clients who received therapy had a more favourable outcome

41

Dodo bird verdict

finding of similar efficacy for widely differing therapies

42

Clinical significance

definition of therapeutic success in which at end of therapy, client falls in range of people not experiencing that disorder

43

Openness

client’s general willingness to invest themselves in therapy and take risks required to change themselves

44

Self-relatedness

ability to be flexible to change, listen carefully to therapist, and use constructively what is learned in therapy

45

Dose-response effect

relation between amount of treatment received and quality of the outcome

46

Common factors

therapeutic elements that are possessed by any type of therapy and which may contribute to similar positive effects shown by many different treatment approaches

47

Psychpharmacology

study of how drugs affect cognitions, emotions, and behaviour

48

Most commonly prescribed drugs fall in 3 categories:

1) Anti-anxiety drugs
2) Antidepressant drugs
3) Antipsychotic drugs

- Drawbacks of anti-anxiety drugs is psychological and physical dependence that can result from long-term use

49

Antidepressants fall into 3 major categories:

1) Tricyclics
2) Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
3) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

50

Tricyclics

Prevent reuptake of excitatory transmitters into presynaptic neurons, allowing them to continue stimulating postsynaptic neurons

51

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors

o Have severe side effects
o Reduce activity of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitters in the synapse

52

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

decrease side effects by increasing activity of only serotonin

53

Tardive dyskinesia

irreversible motor disorder that can occur as a side effect for certain antipsychotic drugs

54

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

biomedical technique involving application of electrical current to brain that is used primarily to reduce severe depression

• Used less frequently and is safer now
• Primarily used now to treat severe depression, particularly when strong treat of suicide exists

55

Psychosurgery

surgical procedures that remove or destroy brain tissue to change disordered behaviour

56

Deinstitutionalization

transfer primary focus of treatment from mental institution to community

57

Revolving door phenomenon

repeated hospitalizations
• ¾ hospital admissions are formerly hospitalized patients

58

Situation-focused prevention

directed at reducing or eliminating environmental causes of behaviour disorders or at enhancing situational factors that help to prevent development of disorders

59

Competency-focused prevention

prevention programs that are designed to enhance personal resources needed to cope with situations that might otherwise cause psychological disorders