Flashcards in Ch 2 Deck (34):
Rights of pt; what is not a right?
Right to considerate and respectful care; Right to refuse medical treatment
Release of pt results in NOT an inherent right - @ discretion of physician
Prep for CT Chest w/contrast
NPO 4hrs prior - reduces nausea, vomiting and possible aspiration of contrast
Prothrombin time definition and average range
Evaluates coagulation ability for invasive procedure
Normal range: 11-15s
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
coagulation time of blood
Normal platelet count for adults
140,000 - 440,000/mL of blood
Normal respiration for children and adults
Children: 20-30 breaths per minute
Adults: 12-20 breaths per minute
Average range for normal blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
Rate that creatinine is cleared from bloodstream by renal system
3 practices to obtain medical hx
open-ended question, encourage pts to provide max info, repeat @ summarize info to assure accuracy
Define systole and types
Contraction of heart
2 types: atrial (contraction of LT/RT atria) and ventricular (contraction of LT/RT ventricles)
Define complete cardiac diastole
Relaxation of heart muscle (relaxed LT/RT atria and ventricles)
2 types: atrial and ventricular
Indicated by T wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)
When is the best time of image heart for least motion artifact?
Normal GFR for women and men
Women: 60 + or - 10mL/min/m2
Men: 70 + or - 14mL/min/m2
anticoagulant that prevents blood clots; reduces heart attack and stroke
2 advantages of auto injectors over manual bolus injections
Increased tissue enhancement (due to faster injection time) and uniform administration of contrast over length of study
Parenteral contrast definition and 5 types
Injection of contrast into bloodstream
5 types: intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intradermal. intrathecal
Osmolality purpose in CT
Measures # of particles per kg of water; Determines potential for adverse reactions
Ionic contrast osmolality
Ionic contrast dissolves into large # of particles: 1000-2400 mOsm/kg
Symptoms of vagal reaction
Bradycardia (heartrate -50bpm), hypotension (systolic pressure -80mm/Hg)
What treats urticaria (hives)?
Propensity of agent to cause fluid from outside blood vessel (extravascular space) to move into blood stream (intravascular space)
Blood plasma half life of iodine contrast
What three factors would be affected with a decrease in pt dose?
Decreased mAs, decreased kVp and increased pitch
What are the four stages of infection?
Incubation (pathogen enters host), prodromal (appearance of signs and symptoms), active/full stage (max appearance of signs and symtoms), convalescence (symptoms diminish and may eventually subside)
Other names for strict isolation
Protective or reverse isolation
What is strict isolation for?
Used for patients w/risk of infection due to immunosuppresion or other debilatative disease
What is a vasovagal reaction?
Systemic hypertension that leads to cerebral ischemia
Mild & moderate reactions
Mild: nausea, mild urticaria, warm flushed feeling; Moderate: dyspnea
What has lower osmolality: ionic or nonionic?
What contrast separates into independent charged particles and what are these charged particles called?
Ionic contrasts separate into charged particles called anions and cations
How are vagal reactions treated?
Increasing blood pressure and atropine to block vagal stimulation of heart
Time before pts can resume breastfeeding after IV contrast
How is mAs and pt dose related?
Directly and proportionally related