Ch. 2: Physiologic & Acoustic Phonetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 2: Physiologic & Acoustic Phonetics Deck (129):
1

Phonology

The scientific study of sound systems and patterns used to create the sounds and words of language.

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Phoneme

The smallest unit of sound that can affect meaning.

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Allophones

Variations of phonemes. They do not change word meanings. Listeners perceive allophones as being the same. E.g., the sound /r/ is a phoneme, but it sounds slightly different when speakers produce it in different linguistic contexts.

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Phonemic

Refers to the abstract system of sounds.

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Phonetic

Refers to the concrete production of specific sounds.

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Phonetics

The study of speech sounds.

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Phone

Any sound produced by the vocal tract. May or may not be a speech sound.

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Acoustic Phonetics

Examines the relationship between articulation and the acoustic signal of speech. The concern is the acoustic properties of sound waves (e.g., periodicity and aperiodicity).

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Auditory Phonetics

The study of hearing, perception, and the brain’s processing of speech.

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Articulatory/Physiological Phonetics

The study of speech sound production. Emphases is on how the articulators produce individual sounds.

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Applied Phonetics

The study of the practical application of research in articulatory, perceptual, acoustic, and experimental phonetics.

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Experimental Phonetics

Involves the use of objective laboratory techniques to scientifically analyze speech sounds.

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Descriptive Phonetics

The study an explanation of the unique sound properties of various dialects and languages.

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Articulation

The production of speech sounds.

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Orthographic Symbols

Symbols used in IPA used to denote sounds.

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Diacritical Markers

Special symbols used in narrow phonetic transcription.

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[:]

Full lengthening. This mark, when placed to the right of a phoneme, indicates that the duration of the phoneme has been increased considerably (almost doubled).

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[‘]

Half lengthening. This mark, when placed to the right of a phoneme, indicates that the duration of the phoneme has been somewhat increased.

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[~]

Nasalization. This mark, when placed above a phoneme, indicates that the phoneme, usually non-nasal, has become nasalized.

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[o]

Devoicing. This mark, when placed below a phoneme, indicates that the phoneme, usually voiced, has become devoiced.

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(v)

Voicing. This mark, when placed below a phoneme, indicates that the phoneme, usually voiceless, has become voiced.

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[h] or [‘]

Aspiration. This mark, when placed at the top right side of a phoneme, indicates that the phoneme, usually unaspirated, becomes aspirated.

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[,]

Unaspiration. In American English, this mark, when placed at the top left side of phoneme /p/, /t/, /k/ in the word-initial positions, indicaes that the phoneme, usually aspirated, becomes unaspirated.

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[w]

Labialization. This mark, when placed directly below the phoneme, indicates that the phoneme, usually nonlabial, becomes labialized.

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[m]

Nonlabialization. This mark, placed directly below the phoneme, indicates that the phoneme, usually labial, becomes nonlabial.

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[n]

Dentalization. This mark, placed directly below the phoneme, indicates that the phoneme, usually not linguadental, is produced at the linguadental place of articulation.

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[.]

Palatization. This mark, placed directly above the phoneme, indicates that the phoneme, usually nonplatal, becomes palatalized.

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[.]

Closing of vowel. This mark, placed directly below the vowel phoneme, indicates that the phoneme is produced with greater closing than normally required for its production.

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[(]

Opening of vowel. This mark, when placed directly below the vowel phoneme, indicates that the phoneme is produced with greater opening than normally required for its production.

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[_]

Tongue raising. This mark, when placed to the right of the vowel phoneme, indicates that the phoneme is produced with more than usual tongue raising.

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[T]

Tongue lowering. This mark, when placed to the right of the vowel phoneme, indicates that the phoneme is produced with more than usual tongue lowering.

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[+] or [ ]

Tongue advancement. This mark, when placed to the right of the vowel phoneme, indicates that the phoneme is produced with more than usual tongue advancement.

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[-] or [ ]

Tongue retraction. This mark, when placed to the right of the vowel phoneme, indicates that the phoneme is produced with more than usual tongue retraction.

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[‘]

Lip rounding. This mark, when placed at the top right side of the vowel phoneme, indicates that the phoneme is produced with more than usual lip rounding.

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[ ]

Lip spreading. This mark, when placed at the top right side of the vowel phoneme, indicates that the phoneme is produced with more than usual lip spreading.

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[-]

Vowel centralization. This mark, when placed across the vowel phoneme, indicates that the phoneme, usually noncentral, becomes centralized.

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[I]

Consonant syllabification. In American English this mark is placed below the consonants /m/, /n /ng/, and /l/ when these consonants perform the function of the nucleus in a syllable.

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Syllable

The smallest phonetic unit.

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Onset

Initial consonant or consonant cluster of the syllable, created by release of the syllable pulse through articulatory movements or action of the chest muscles.

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Nucleus

A vowel or diphthong in the middle of the syllable. Created by vowel-shaping movements of the vocal tract.

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Coda

Consonant at the end of the syllable. Created by arrest of the syllable pulse through articulatory movements, action of the chest muscles, or both.

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Open Syllables

Syllables that end in vowels.

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Closed Syllables

Syllables that end in consonants.

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Syllabification

The skill involved in identifying the number of syllables in words.

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Distinctive Feature Analysis

An approach to classifying speech sounds. Each phoneme is a collection of independent features. Each phoneme (consonant or vowel) is described according to a cluster of features that are either present or absent in that phoneme. A binary system in which the presence of a feature is noted by a plus (+) mark and the absence of a feature is noted by a minus (-) symbol.

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Place-Voice-Manner Analysis

An approach to classifying speech sounds. Categorizes consonants in terms of three parameters: place, voice, manner.

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Place of Articulation

Refers to the location of the sound’s production, indicating the primary articulators that shape the sounds.

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Voicing

Refers to vocal fold vibration during produced of sounds.

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Manner of Articulation

Refers to the degree or type of constriction of the vocal tract during consonant production.

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Cognate Pairs

Sounds that are identical in every way except voicing.

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Nasals

Produced by lowering the velum to keep the velopharyngeal port open.

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Fricatives

Derive their name from the friction – a hissing type quality—that results from the continuous forcing of air through a narrow constriction.

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Affricates

Sounds that begin as stops and are released as fricatives.

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Stops

Produced by complete constriction or closure of the vocal tract at some point, so the flow is totally stopped.

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Glides

Produced by a quick transition of the articulators as they move from a partially constricted state to a more open state for the vowels that follow them. Also known as semivowels or sonorants.

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Liquids

Sounds produced with the least oral cavity restriction of all the consonants.

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Retroflex /r/

/r/ made with the tongue tip retracted and approximating the hard palate.

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Bunched /r/

/r/ produced when the dorsum of the tongue is retracted and elevated toward the hard palate.

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Consonant Clusters/Blends

Sounds produced when several consonants occur in a row.

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Vocalics

Include all vowels. These sounds are produced without a marked constriction in the vocal tract.

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Sonorants

Include all vowels. Produced by an airstream that passes unconstructed through the oral or nasal cavity.

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Voiced Vowels

Include all vowels. All vowels are produced with vocal fold vibration.

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Rounded Vowels

Vowels produced with the lips protruded or rounded.

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Tense Vowels

Vowels produced with muscle contraction or tension at the root of the tongue.

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Front Vowels

Vowels produced when the tongue is in a position anterior to the neutral schwa position.

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Back Vowels

Vowels made with the tongue retracted from the neutral schwa position.

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High Vowels

Vowels made with the tongue lowered from the neutral schwa position.

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Low Vowels

Vowels made with the tongue lowered from the neutral schwa position.

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Rhotic

Refers to the sounds made with an /r/ coloring.

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Lip Position

Causes vowels to be categorized as rounded or unrounded.

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Tense/Lax Qualities

Tense vowels have longer duration and are produced with increased tension, while lax vowels are of shorter duration and are produced with relatively less muscle tension.

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Tongue Height

Causes vowels to be categorized as high, mid, or low in terms of production within the oral cavity.

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Tongue Forwardness or Retraction

Causes vowels to be categorized as front, central, or back in terms of production within the oral cavity.

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Diphthongs

Produced as slow gliding movement from one vowel (the onglide) to the adjacent vowel (the offglide). Represented phonetically by digraph symbols that highlight the initial and final segments.

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Phonetic Adaptations

Encompass variations in the way the articulators move and the extent to which vocal tract configurations change shape.

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Assimilation

When speech sounds are modified due to the influence of adjacent sounds.

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Coarticulation

Refers to the influence of one phoneme upon another phoneme in production or perception. Two different articulators move simultaneously to produce two different speech sounds. Creates both adaptation and assimilation.

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Suprasegmentals

Add meaning, variety, and color to running speech. Involve such larger units as syllables, words, phrases, and sentences. Also referred to as features of prosody.

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Stress

An important characteristic of syllables, as it can change the meanings of words.

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Primary Stress

Stressed syllables.

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Secondary/Weak Stress

Unstressed syllables.

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Rate

Speed with which a person speaks.

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Pitch

The auditory sensation of the frequency with which the vocal folds vibrate.

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Intensity

Sound pressure. Physical property of sound.

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Loudness

Sensory correlate of intensity. Also known as volume.

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Juncture/Vocal Punctuation

A combination of suprasegmentals, such as intonation and pausing, that mark special distinctions or grammatical divisions in speech. These distinctions affect the meaning of an utterance.

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Acoustics

A branch of physics that is the study of physical properties of sound and how sound is generated and propagated.

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Psychoacoustics

Study of how humans respond to sound as a physical phenomenon. A branch of both psychology and acoustics.

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Sound Waves

Movements of particles in a medium containing expansions and contractions of molecules.

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Compression/Condensation

A phase of sound in which the vibratory movements of an object (e.g., the tines of a tuning fork) increase the density of air molecules because the molecules are compressed or condensed. The opposite of rarefaction.

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Rarefaction

Thinning of air molecules when the vibrating object returns to equilibrium. The opposite of compression/condensation.

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Simple Harmonic Motion

Refers to the back-and-forth movement of particles when the movement is symmetrical or periodic. Also known as a sine wave.

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Sinusoidal Motion

A wave with horizontal and vertical symmetry because it contains one peak/crest and one valley/trough. Contains a single frequency. Is a result of simple harmonic motion.

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Aperiodic Waves

Waves that do not repeat themselves at regular intervals. Their vibratory patterns are random and difficult to predict from one time interval to the next.

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Periodic Waves

Sound waves that repeat themselves at regular intervals and are predictable.

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Amplitude

One of two characteristics of vibratory motion and is the magnitude and direction of the displacement. In acoustics, it is the strength or magnitude of a sound signal.

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Intensity

The quality of sound that creates the sensation of loudness. Physically, it is the amount of energy transmitted per second over an area of one square meter.

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Bel

A logarithmic unit of measure of sound intensity.

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Decibel (dB)

A measure of sound intensity that equals one-tenth of a bel.

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Csg System

A metric system of measure length in centimeters (cm), time in seconds (sec), and mass in grams (g). Can be contrasted with the MKS system.

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MKS System

A metric system of measuring length in meters (m), mass in kilograms (kg), and time in seconds.

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Dyne

A measure of force in the csg metric system. 1 dyne is the force required to accelerate a mass of 1 gram from a velocity of 0 cm per second to a velocity of 1 cm per second in 1 second.

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Density

The amount of mass per unit volume. Serves as a medium for sound and affects sound transmission.

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Displacement

Change in position.

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Oscillation

The back-and-forth movement of air molecules because of a vibrating object.

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Force

A vector quantity that tends to produce an acceleration of a body in the direction of its application. Product of mass and acceleration.

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Elasticity

A property that makes it possible for matter (which helps transmit sound) to recover its form and volume when subjected to distortion. All matter is subjected to distortion when force is applied to it.

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Velocity

A change in position of, for example, air molecules when an object is set to vibration. Measured in terms of the distance an object moves per the time and the direction it takes as it moves.

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Frequency

One of the two characteristics of vibratory motion. The rate of vibratory motion that is measure in terms of the number of cycles completed per second or, more recently, in terms of Hertz (Hz).

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Hertz (Hz)

The unit of measure for frequency. Same as cycles per second. 1 cycle per second = 1 Hz.

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Natural Frequency

The frequency with which a source sound normally vibrates. Determined by the source’s mass and stiffness.

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Formant Frequency

A frequency region with concentrated acoustic energy. The center frequency of a formant, which is a resonance.

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Fundamental Frequency

The lowest frequency of a periodic wave. The first harmonic.

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Octave

An indication of the interval between two frequencies. The intervals always maintain a ratio of 1:2, thus each octave doubles as a particular frequency (e.g., 200 Hz is one octave above 100 Hz).

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Impedance

Acoustic, mechanical, or electrical resistance to motion or sound transmission.

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Newton’s Law of Motion

Explains motion and its characteristics. Sound involves motion. The law of inertia states that all bodies remain at rest or in a state of uniform motion unless another force acts in opposition. A body in motion tends to stay in motion and a body at rest tends to stay at rest. The law of reaction forces says that every force is associated with a reaction force of opposite direction.

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Pressure

The amount of force per unit area. Measured either as dynes or newtons.

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Reflection

Refers to the phenomenon of sound waves traveling back after hitting an obstacle, with no change in the speed of propagation.

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Refraction

The bending of the sound wave due to change in its speed of propagation.

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Resonance

The modification of sound by other sources. Refers to the modification of sound by other sources. Refers to modification of the laryngeal tone predominantly by the nasal and oral cavities.

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Transmitting Medium

Any matter that carries or transmits sound. Air, liquids, and solids can all transmit sound.

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Complex Tone

Tone created when two or more single frequency tones of differing frequencies are combined.

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dB SPL

Measure of intensity of sound pressure. Sound pressure is the square root of power, which is measured in watts. The pressure itself is measured in terms of pascals.

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Hearing Level (HL)

Minimum sound intensity to stimulate the human auditory system.

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Sound Spectrograph

An electronic instrument that graphically records the changing intensity levels of the frequency components in a complex sound wave.

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Spectrogram

The display of the running short-term spectrum.

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Process of a Spectrogram

1) The person speaks into a microphone, which transduces the speech sample so that air pressure variations of the acoustic signal are put into the form of voltage variations.
2) The electrical signal is converted to an electromagnetic signal for storage on the magnetic drum of the spectrograph.
3) The stored magnetic pattern is converted back into an electrical signal for analysis as a spectrogram.
4) The signal is then filtered so that one can determine energy in various frequency regions.
5) The current of the electrical signal is amplified and fed to a marking stylus.
6 As the current flows from the stylus to the paper, there is localized burning of the paper. The burning produces a blackening of the paper in proportion to the current which is flowing through the stylus.

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Voice Onset Time

The time between the release of the stop consonant and the beginning of the vowel.

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Voice Termination Time

The time required to cease vocal activity.