Ch. 14: Professional Issues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 14: Professional Issues Deck (28):
1

ASHA

The national organization that fulfills many functions in research, legislation that affects the profession, regulation of the profession, academic training, and public information.

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ASHA’s Goals

1) Encourage basic scientific study of human communication, with special emphasis on speech, language, and hearing
2) Promote high standards for academic and clinical preparation of individuals who will serve people with communication disorders and promote the maintenance of current knowledge and skills of those within the discipline
3) Promote investigation, prevention, and the diagnosis and treatment of communication and related disorders
4) Foster improvement of clinical services and intervention procedures for communication and related disorders
5) Stimulate exchange of information among persons and organizations and help disseminate such information
6) Inform the public about communication sciences and disorders, related disorders, and the professionals who offer services
7) Advocate on behalf of persons with communication disorders
8) Promote the individual and collective professional interests of the members of the association

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ASHA’s Responsibilities

1) Sponsors various scientific and professional conferences and conventions, institutes, and workshops each year as part of its continuing professional education program
2) Maintains programs related to research, education, and delivery of clinical services
3) Maintains a national career information program, a governmental affairs program, and a public information program
4) Carries out a continuing program of data collection related to professional training, human resource needs, and membership characteristics and activities
5) Sponsors a voluntary continuing education program that approves providers of continuing education activities and offers an Aware for Continuing Education to certified individuals and member
6) Publishes several professional journals and other professional materials providing technical support to practitioner members on issues affecting the delivery of services
7) Maintains a computerized database that provides information about federal and private funding sources in the US and Canada
8) Protects the public interest by maintaining high standards for members, certificate holders, accredited clinics, and accredited graduate educational programs

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Membership with Certification

Open to those who have a master’s degree from an ASHA-accredited university program with a major emphasis in SLP or audiology and have completed all requirements for the CCC. To continue in this category, a member must meet the mandatory continuing education requirements.

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Membership without Certification

Open to US residents who have a master’s degree in SLP, audiology, or SL&H sciences but are not involved in providing clinical services or clinical supervision.

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Membership without Certification (Research or Allied Professional)

Open to individuals who hold a graduate degree and are involved in human communication research but do not provide clinical services.

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International Affiliates

Open to those who hold a graduate degree and reside abroad. These members are not eligible for clinical certification.

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Certificate Holders

Those who maintain their clinical certifications but do not become members of the association. They do not enjoy the membership benefits.

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Life Membership

Open to those who are 65 years or older and have been members of ASHA for 25 consecutive years.

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ASHA’s Special Interest Divisions (SIDs)

1) Language Learning and Education
2) Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders
3) Voice and Voice Disorders
4) Fluency and Fluency Disorders
5) Speech Science and Orofacial Disorders
6) Hearing and Hearing Disorders: Research and Diagnosis
7) Aural Rehabilitation and Its Instrumentation
8) Hearing Conservation and Occupational Audiology
9) Hearing and Hearing Disorders in Adults
10) Issues in Higher Education
11) Administration and Supervision
12) Augmentative and Alternative Communication
13) Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia)
14) Communication Disorders and Sciences in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations
15) Gerontology
16) School-Based Issues

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Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (CAA)

Accredits master’s degree programs in SLP and audiology that meet its minimum standards. A national team visits graduate degree programs in audiology or SLP and evaluates their quality.

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Council for Clinical Certification

Evaluates and approves clinical certification standards.

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CCC-SLP Requirements

1) Master’s degree in SLP at accredited institution
2) Minimum of 75 hours of coursework in SLP and related disciplines (36 of 75 must be at graduate level)
3) Demonstrated the acquisition of knowledge and clinical skill adequate for entry into professional practice (demonstrated through KASA portfolio)
4) 400 hours of supervised clinical work (25 hours of observation included)
5) Pass Praxis exam
6) Complete CF within 4 years of graduation

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Principle of Ethics I

Clinicians shall holds the welfare of persons they serve paramount by making sure that they:
a) Are well-prepared to serve their clients
b) Make appropriate referrals when necessary
c) Do not discriminate on such bases as race, gender, ethnicity, national origin, disability, or sexual orientation
d) Obtain informed consent on all aspects of service delivery and research
e) Offer treatments that are evidence-based
f) Maintain confidentiality of their clients and research participants

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Principle of Ethics II

Clinicians shall maintain the highest level of professional competence by:
a) Understanding their strengths and limitations
b) Obtaining continuing education
c) Providing adequate supervision to clinicians working under them
d) Being knowledgeable in using assessment and treatment instruments

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Principle of Ethics III

Clinicians shall honor their responsibility to the public by:
a) Promoting an understanding of the profession and its services
b) Offering services that are needed
c) Providing accurate information about the profession, its services, and research

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Principle of Ethics IV

Clinicians shall honor their responsibilities to their profession, colleagues, students, and members of related professionals by:
a) Taking adequate supervisory responsibilities
b) Giving clinical or authorship credits to others when they are due
c) Using professional judgment (not extraneous considerations) in offering services
d) Maintaining professional demeanor
e) Upholding the standards of the profession

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SLPA Responsibilities

- Implement treatment plans developed and supervised by SLPs
- Assist with screenings and assessments
- Perform clerical duties (scheduling and record keeping)
- Assist in conducting research, in-service training, and public relations programs
- Document client performance (prepare charts, records, and graphs)
- Check and maintain equipment
- Collect and document data for quality improvement

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SLPA Restrictions

- Administer standardized or nonstandardized tests or interpret the results
- Screen or diagnose patients for feeding or swallowing disorders
- Participate in parent or case conferences, nor can they counsel parents or clients unless supervised by an SLP
- Write or modify treatment plans
- Offer treatment that is not developed by an SLP
- Sign treatment plans or assessment reports
- Select, refer, or discharge clients
- Disclose confidential information
- Demonstrate swallowing strategies or precautions

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P.L. 94-142 Education of the Handicapped Act/IDEA

Enacted in 1975. Mandated free and appropriate education for disabled students from ages 3 to 21. Basic tenets include:
- Disabled children and youth ages 3 – 21 years were guaranteed free and appropriate public education in the “least restrictive environment” including special education and related services.
- All students receiving education services were to have individualized education programs (IEPs), determined by parents and professionals, that served as written records of commitments to meet students’ goals.
- Students and parents were guaranteed protection of their rights through due legal process, including the right to an impartial due process hearing and the right to examine all relevant records.
- The federal government was to provide funds for local and state agencies to carry out prescribed programs and to monitor and evaluate those programs.

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P.L. 99-457 EHA Amendment

Enacted in 1986. Amendment to P.L. 99-142. Intended to provide early intervention that woud reduce the number of children requiring special education services in later years. Increased monetary support for states to provide services. All school service providers must meet their state’s highest requirements for their discipline. Mandated development of IFSP. Major provision is multidisciplinary programming for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. States were no longer required to report preschool children by disability category. At-risk preschool children also became eligible for special education services, including children who had experienced traumatic life events, depression, child abuse, and substance abuse.

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IFSP

Includes information about:
- The child’s current level of development
- The family’s needs and strengths relating to the child’s development
- The major goals for the child and family, and services to be provided
- A review of the plan at 6-month intervals or more frequently if needed

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P.L. 101-476 Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)

Enacted in 1990. Reauthorized P.L. 94-142 and altered the language used in referring to its beneficiaries. “Disability” replaced the word “handicap.” Expanded the number of different categories of disabilities. Definition of special education was expanded to include instruction in all settings, including training centers and workplaces.

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P.L. 105-17 IDEA Amendments of 1997

Amendments from 1997. Constituted the reauthorization of IDEA. Included:
- Increased, meaningful parental involvement in evaluations, including parental access to reports, test instruments, and other interpretative materials that contain personally identifiable information
- Improved educational results for children with disabilities
- Increased participation of special educators in the general classroom setting, including involvement with curriculum
- Increased participation of children with learning problems in the regular classroom activities, prevention of inappropriate identification and mislabeling of children who are ethnically, linguistically, and racially diverse
- Improved use of alternative assessments for children who cannot participate in standard assessments

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P.L. 108-446 IDEA Reforms of 2004

Puts a greater emphasis on using prereferral services to prevent unnecessary referrals to special education. States are required to provide coordinated, comprehensive, and early intervention programs for children in groups that are overrepresented in special education.

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American with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Enacted in 1990. Provides civil rights protection relative to employment, state, and local government services, telecommunications, and public accommodations to all individuals with disabilities. Bars employment discrimination against qualified people. Requires that employers provide “reasonable accommodations.” Employers must provide special equipment if needed. Employers do not have to provide accommodations that impose an “undue hardship” on business operations.

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Social Security Act (SSA)

Passed in 1935. Expanded the federal government’s grant-in-aid assistance to the states. It was the federal government’s first major step toward involvement in a widespread program of living and medical assistance to people at large. Provided the foundation for Medicaid and Medicare. Established federal benefits for older people, public health, maternal health, child health, and health of people with disabilities. Amendments of 1983 had a significant effect of SLP and audiology services. They offered incentive reimbursements for hospitals to provide more efficient and cost-effective treatment for patients. Cost limits were placed on services provided, leading to fewer SLP and audiology services being offered to patients.

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Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

Enacted in 1996. Health care providers were mandated to comply with these protections. Involves a set of rules followed by doctors, health plans, hospitals, and health care providers. The first-ever set of federal privacy standards to protect patients’ medical records and other health information provided to health plans, hospitals, doctors, and other health care providers (covered entites).