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Flashcards in ch 28 s/s Deck (424):
1

lots of CNS excitability that makes even the slightest touches very painful that can lead to involuntary motor contractions or convulsions

rabies

2

gyri look like a knife edge

Pick disease: a subset of FTLD-tau

3

False localizing signs (CN palsies

increased intracranial pressure
-brain abcess

4

cause intractable nausea, confusion, convulsions, and rapid onset of coma and then death

v high levels radiation

5

memory changes

Alzheimers dis

6

molar tooth sign

Joubert syndrome

7

LNs, thymus, and gonads are hypoplastic

Ataxia-telangiectasia

8

low grade tumor arising form pineocytes

Pineocytomas

9

Pick bodies and lobar restriction

Pick disease: a subset of FTLD-tau

10

status marmoratus

perinatal ischemic lesions of the cerebral cortex
-abnormal myelinization that gives rise to a marble-like appearance of the deep nuclei

11

Rapid quadriplegia death of locked in syndrome

Central pontine myelinolysis

12

inflammation of white and grey matter with neurofibrillary tangles

Subacute panencephalitis (SSPE)

13

focal, paraventrivular cystic changes and mild symmetric hydrocephalus

cystic fibrosis

14

significant ependymal injury

from CMV

15

perivascular accumulation of lymphocytes

Arthropod borne viral encephalitis

16

Meningeal vessels are engorged and prominent

meningitis

17

granulomas

TB of CNS

18

in ppl who develop a coma after trauma

Diffuse axonal injury

19

circumscribed, depressed, glassy, grey-tan, irregularly shaped plaques that are firmer than the surrounding brain

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

20

neoplasm w brightly eosinophilc cell body from which there are lots of stout processes that come out

Gemistocytic astrocytoma (type of type III infiltrating astrocytoma)

21

hydeocephalus ex vacuo

Alzheimers Dis
-ventricular widening d/t cortical atrophy

22

very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the serum

Adrenoleukodystrophy

23

microglial nodules

Arthropod borne viral encephalitis
-Microglial cells that form small aggregates around the foci of necrosis

24

painful radiculoneuritis

Cytomegalovirus
-when attack the lower spinal cord and roots

25

Neutrophils around the leptomeningeal vessels

less severe meningitis

26

blindness

Neuronal storage dzs: Ceroid lipocuscinoses

27

prbs in short term memory and confabulation

Korsakoff syndrome (development form Wernicke encephalopathy (Thiamine (vit B1) deficiency))

28

compression of ACA

subfalcine herniation

29

Asymmetric atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes that spares the posterior 2/3 of the superior temporal gyrus

Pick disease: a subset of FTLD-tau

30

immunodeficiency

Ataxia-telangiectasia

31

midline cyst that is lined by ependymal

Dandy-walker malformation

32

wright rosettes

medulloblastoma
-neuronal granules

33

URIs

ALS

34

neuritic (senile) plaques

Alzheimers Dis

35

distal limb amyotrophy

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy dz)

36

Pseudo-palisading

Glioblastoma (type IV infiltrating astrocytoma)
-tumor cells collect along the edges of the necrotic regions

37

pnemonias

ALS

38

degeneration of the involved fiber tracts.

Diffuse axonal injury

39

Tuft of hair, dimple, outpouch

spina bifida occulta

40

Fever

-Subdural empyema
-rabies

41

nuclear atypia

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

42

Seizures

-increased intracranial pressure
--brain abcess
-Arthropod borne viral encephalitis
-Subacute panencephalitis (SSPE)
-cerebral malaria
-Neuronal storage dzs: Ceroid lipocuscinoses
-Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF)
-Leigh synd
-Gangliogliomas (but no more when removed)
-Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor

43

tumor that leads to widespread microscopic infarcts that result in nonlocalizing neuro symptoms like dementia

=Intravascular lymphoma

44

Anterior roots (pic) of the spinal cord are thin from loss of LMN fibers, loss of anterior horn neurons and reactive gliosis

ALS

45

demyelination in a subcortical location that has a center filled with lipid laden Mfs and a reduced number of axons

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

46

scattered lymphocytes

Acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis

47

lose the ability to control all voluntary mvmt, but bladder and bowel sphincter and eye m’s are usu spared until the late course

ALS

48

fluid filled cavity in the inner portion of the cord

syrinx

49

cerebral gummas in meninges and parenchyma

Meningovascular neurosyphilis
-plasma cell rich mass lesions

50

dystonia

Cerebral palsy

51

cramping/spasticity of the arms and legs

ALS

52

dysarthric Speech

Ataxia-telangiectasia

53

Cowdry type A viral inclusion bodies in neurons and glia

Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) encephalitis

54

pupillary dilation

transtentorial herniation

55

s/s that deal with cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Huntingtons Ds

56

Change in pupil rxn

increased intracranial pressure
-brain abcess

57

dystrophic neurites that surround a central amyloid core
-There may also be a clear halo around all of this

plaques of Alzheimers Dis

58

gynecomastia

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy dz)

59

muscle strength and bulk decreases and fasciculations

ALS

60

disequilibrium with frequent falls

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
(Atypical Parkinsonism Syndrome)

61

truncal ataxia, unsteady gait, and nystagmus

Wernicke –Korsakoff synd from toxic disorder from ethanol
-atrophy and loss of granule cells in the anterior vermis

62

muscle involvement with weakness and lactic acidosis

-Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
-Leigh synd

63

disseminated necrosis of white and grey matter with acute hem, fibrin deposition, and lots of neutrophils

Acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis

64

tumor of temporal lobe with a cystic component

Gangliogliomas (type of neuronal tumor)

65

lensatic/lenticular bleed

Epidural (extra-) hematoma

66

central necrosis w new leaky (edema) bv surrounding it

brain abcess: new

67

testicular atrophy

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy dz)

68

enlarged oligodendrocyte nuclei w glassy amphophilic viral inclusions at the edges of the lesions

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

69

severely involves the inferior and medial regions of temporal lobes (arrows) and orbital gyri (asteric)

Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) encephalitis

70

ventriculitis from pus into ventricles

fulminant meningitis

71

Tau-containing bundles of filaments in the cytoplasm that surround the nucleus of the neurons

-tangles of Alzheimers Dis
-Frontotemporal lobar degen (FTLD)-tau
-PArkinsons dis w LRRK2 mutation
-Progressive Supranuclear palsy
-corticobasal degeneration

72

angioinvasive --> can cause infarct in brains

vasculitis from mucormycosis and aspergillosis (fungal) meningoencephalitis

73

Solid, sometimes calcified, slow growing nodules attached to the ventricular lining and protruding into the ventricle

Subependymomas
-can cause hydrocephalus

74

greyish decoloration around vessels in the white matter

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE)

75

symmetric loss of myelin in the basis pontis and the pontine tegmentum

Central pontine myelinolysis

76

festinating gait

Parkinsons dis
-(progressively shortened and accelerated steps)

77

Petechiae and fibrinoid necrosis of arterioles in the grey and white matter

HTN encephalopathy

78

more behavioral changes and the neuro symptoms progressed more slowly

Variant CJD (vCJD)

79

quick onset of altered neurological dysfunction including loss of consciousness, temp respiratory arrest, and loss of reflexes.
-Recovery is typically complete

parenchymal injury: concussion

80

chronic inflamm rxn

HIV

81

Brains are atrophic, enlarged ventricles, increased amounts of tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE

82

sheared MMA

Epidural (extra-) hematoma

83

Duret hemorrhages:

transtentorial herniation
-hemorrhagic lesions in the midbrain and pons.

84

initial slight symmetrical numbness and tingling

Vit B12 deficiency

85

lose consciousness immediately

Epidural (extra-) hematoma

86

recurrent strokes (usually infarcts) and dementia

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

87

Distended, loosely organized vascular channels arranged back to back with collagenized walls of variable thickness

Cavernous malformations

88

Precentral motor gyrus is atrophied

ALS

89

Spheroids

-Acute neuronal injury: when posttraumatic diffuse axonal damage (shearing of the axons)
-diffuse axonal injury

90

retardation

Agenesis of the corpus collosum

91

first decade of life with gait ataxia, then hand clumsiness and dysarthria, depressed/absent DTRs, impaired proprioception/vibration, sometimes loss of pain/temp/light touch

Friedreich ataxia

92

hematoma that occurs a fracture that crosses the line of a vessel

Epidural (extra-) hematoma

93

polycythemia

Von Hippel-Lindau ds

94

pes cavus

Friedreich ataxia

95

hemangioblastomas of the CNS (esp cerebellum and retina) and cysts of the pancreas, liver, and kidneys.

Von Hippel-Lindau ds

96

basal distribution of exudate

meningitis from H influ

97

osmotic demyelination disorder

Central pontine myelinolysis

98

Exudate on the leptomeninges

meningitis

99

Big grpings of gyral malformations

Pachygryria

100

status spongiosus

Creutzfeldt-Jackob Dz (CJD
-expansion of the vacuolated areas into cystlike spaces

101

dehydration that leads to confusion, stupor, and coma

hyperglycemia

102

pigmented nodules of the iris (lisch nodules)

NF1

103

alternating periods of mania and stupor

rabies

104

telangiectasias in the the CNS, conjunctiva, and skin of face/neck/arms

Ataxia-telangiectasia

105

Neutrophils fill the subarachnoid space

severe meningitis

106

subtle changes in memory and behavior, followed by rapid dementia and startle myoclonus

Creutzfeldt-Jackob Dz (CJD

107

agyria

lissencephaly

108

etat crible

lacunar infarcts
-w widening of perivasc spaces w/o tissue infarction

109

weakness

-Friedreich ataxia

110

reticulin deposits

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

111

episodes of neuro deficits separated in time

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

112

b/l cortical atrophy

Alzheimers Dis

113

mild progressive dementia

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
(Atypical Parkinsonism Syndrome)

114

later: central areas cystic and gliotic

spinal cord injury

115

lesions have giant astrocytes with one to many irregular hyperchromatic nuclei

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

116

damage to the dorsal sensory roots --> poor proprioception and locomotor ataxia

Tabes dorsalis

117

Damaged basal ganglia and thalamus with patchy neuronal loss and reactive gliosis

perinatal ischemic lesions of the cerebral cortex

118

extensive cortical plaques that are surrounded by a halo of spongiform change

Variant CJD (vCJD)

119

many meningiomas

NF2

120

meningitis

HSV 2 encph

121

glomeruloid body

Glioblastoma (type IV infiltrating astrocytoma)
-vascular prolif --> tufts of cells to pile up and bulge into lumen-->forms a ball

122

B/l schwannomas of the vestibulocochlear nerves

NF2

123

Leptomeningeal fibrosis

pyogenic meningitis

124

Prbs with deglutition and phonation

bulbar ALS

125

globoid cells

krabbe dis
-aggregations of engorged Mfs

126

dementia

-HIV (from microglial inflamm)
-Alzheimers
-Parkinsons dis LATER
-Huntington Ds (start as forgetfulness)
-ALS maybe

127

Polymicrogyria

Arnold-chiari malformation type II

128

Failure of midline structures to form

Holoprosencephaly

129

build up of sulfatides in cytoplasmic vacuoles

Adrenoleukodystrophy

130

Ammonia and inflammatory cytokine levels are increased

Hepatic encph

131

Motor and sensory deficits of the extremities

Ischemia in the vertebrobasilar area

132

gelantinous material within the subarachnoid space

crytococcal (fungal) meningitis

133

rapidly progressive dementia

prion dis

134

asymm Axonal swelling and focal hemorrhagic lesions

Diffuse axonal injury

135

fluctuating course, hallucinations, and frontal signs

Parkinsons dis: dementia w lewy bodies

136

weakness, lethargy, ataxia, and seizures that takes 4-6 weeks to resolve

Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) encephalitis

137

increased numbers of microglia

Diffuse axonal injury

138

hem is resorbed and leaves small slit like cavity that is surrounded by a brownish discoloration

slit hems

139

cardiomyophathy (pericardial adhesions, fibers are destructed w inflamm and fibrosis)-->arrhythmias and CHF --> most of the deaths

Friedreich ataxia

140

Dilated fundus and tortuous bvs

increased intracranial pressure
-brain abcess

141

small and empty microscopic vaculues within the neuropil

Creutzfeldt-Jackob Dz (CJD

142

well circumscribed tumor w calcifications

oligodendroglioma

143

autonomic disturbances

-Fatal familial insomnia (FFI)
-Parkinsons dis LATER
-Multiple system atrophy (MSA) (HoTN)

144

hx of seizures

-Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
-oligodendroglioma (and other neuro complaints)

145

perivenular cuffs of lymphocytes and monocytes

active plaques of MS

146

4 or more mitoses per 10 high powered fields

Atypical meningiomas

147

overproducing CSF that leads to hydrocephalus

Choroid plexus papillomas (type of ependymoma)

148

mental confusion,

-subdural hematoma
-TB of CNS
--Arthropod borne viral encephalitis

149

small gyri

microcephaly

150

photophobia

meningitis

151

impairment of EOMs

transtentorial herniation

152

apparent elongation of the superior cerebellar peduncles

Joubert syndrome

153

collagenous capsule surrounded by reactive gliosis (gemistocytic astrocytes)

brain abcess: old

154

raccoon eyes

basal skull fracture

155

lewy body that contains α-syn

Parkinsons dis

156

lumbar myelomeningocele

Arnold-chiari malformation type II

157

limb spasticity

Subacute panencephalitis (SSPE)

158

slowly progressive neurological deterioration, but sometimes there is acute decompensation

subdural hematoma

159

recurring infections

ALS

160

reduced cerebral blood flow

cerebral malaria

161

nausea/vomit

increased intracranial pressure
-brain abcess
-TB of CNS

162

Foaming of the mouth

rabies
-from contracture of the pharyngeal muscles

163

delirium

Arthropod borne viral encephalitis

164

death from resp failure

rabies

165

neural tissue and meninges that protrude through the vertebral defec

Myelomeningocele (or meningomyelocele)

166

headaches, nausea, vomiting, and papilledema

Delayed effects of radiation

167

Altered consciousness

Ischemia in the vertebrobasilar area

168

obliterative endarteritis

-TB of CNS
-Meningovascular neurosyphilis

169

paraplegia (if there is not prompt treatment)

Vit B12 deficiency

170

cyclopia

Holoprosencephaly

171

oligospermia

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy dz)

172

mononuclear cell perivascular cuffs

Poliomyelitis

173

Papilledema

increased intracranial pressure
-most important
-brain abcess

174

gliomas of the optic nerve

NF1

175

Acute: Hem, necrosis, axonal swelling

spinal cord injury

176

arrest of psychomotor dev

Leigh synd

177

choroid plexitis

Cytomegalovirus

178

change in personality

Alzheimers dis

179

Neurofibromas of the peripheral nerve

NF1

180

Rapidly progressive motor signs of stiffness and weakness that appears between 3-6m of life

krabbe dis

181

focal tissue destruction, pigment laden Mfs, and gliosis

slit hems

182

Acute lesions exhibit central necrosis, petechial hem surrounded by acute and chronic inflammation, Mf infiltration, and vascular proliferation

Cerebral toxoplasmosis

183

psychotic symptoms

Wernicke encephalopathy (Thiamine (vit B1) deficiency)

184

sleep prbs

-Fatal familial insomnia (FFI)

185

depigmentation of substantial nigra

chronic traumatic encephalopathy

186

reflex symmetry

-Acute aseptic viral meningitis
-Arthropod borne viral encephalitis

187

Central chromatolysis

Acute neuronal injury

188

tau in frontal and temporal lobes

FTLD-tau

189

stooped posture

Parkinsons dis

190

fluid filled cavity in the inner portion of the cord that can extend into the brainstem

syringobulbi

191

motor/sensory prbs

MS

192

cystic space with hemosiderin Mfs

Wernicke encephalopathy (Thiamine (vit B1) deficiency)

193

paresis

Cerebral palsy

194

worst ever sudden headache (and prob loose consciousness)

rupture of a sacular aneurism

195

atrophy and fasciculations of the tongue and the dysphagia

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy dz)

196

Hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis

Joubert syndrome

197

areas above and below the injury show wallerian degeneration

spinal cord injury

198

behavioral changes and adrenal insufficiency.

Adrenoleukodystrophy

199

amphicytes

Ataxia-telangiectasia
-enlargement of the nucleus in many cells: schwann cells, endothelial cells, and pituicytes

200

Microglial nodules

HIV, rickettsia, other viruses

201

spasticity

MS

202

ulegyria

perinatal ischemic lesions of the cerebral cortex
-Thinned out gliotic gyri

203

sinopulmonary infections

Ataxia-telangiectasia

204

candle-guttering.

Tuberous sclerosis complex
-Large astrocyte-like cells will cluster beneath the ventricular surface

205

if exposed to MPTP

--> destroys substantia nigra -->Parkinsons dis

206

Alzheimer type 2 astrocyte

seen in ppl w long-standing hyperammonemia d/t chronic liver dis, Wilson dis, or hereditary metabolic disorders of the urea cycle

207

necrotizing ventriculoencephalitis

Cytomegalovirus

208

change in judgement

Alzheimers dis

209

when the bridging veins in the subdural space rupture

Subdural hematoma

210

tumor that grows grow en plaque

meningiomas
-tumor spreads in a sheetlike fashion along the dura

211

Visual field defects

Ischemia in the vertebrobasilar area

212

seizure ds, intracerebral hem, or subarachnoid hem

vascular malformations

213

bladder control prbs

MS

214

bradykinesia

Huntingtons Ds LATER

215

axonal swelling

HIV

216

cytoplasmic inclusions of α-syn in oligodendrocytes

Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
-(more sensative to oxidative stress)

217

Headache

-increased intracranial pressure(most important)
-subdural hematoma
-meningitis
-brain abcess
-Subdural empyema
-TB of CNS
-rabies
-Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE)

218

of GFAP positive astrocytic processes to make a fibrillary background appearance

-Diffuse astrocytoma (type II infiltrating astrocytoma)
-Pilocytic astrocytoma
-Ependymoma
-medullobalstoma***

219

cerebritis

fulminant meningitis
- inflammatory cells infiltrate the walls of the leptomeningeal veins and can travel down into the brain

220

apraxias

Corticobasal degeneration
-impaired higher cortical fct

221

sarcomas, gliomas, and meningiomas

yrs after radiation exposure

222

tumor that only appears in the cerebellum

medulloblastoma

223

vascular dysfunction --> Rapidly progressing encph

cerebral malaria

224

Burina bodies

ALS
-PAS positive cytoplasmic inclusions

225

flaccid paralysis --> muscle wasting and hyporeflexia of the affected area-->paresis or paralysis

Poliomyelitis
-can affect diaphragm

226

Multi-infarct dementia

HTN encephalopathy

227

compression of resp and cardiac ctrs of brain

Tonsillar herniation

228

T-cell leukemia

Ataxia-telangiectasia

229

Cerebellar tonsils extend down into the vertebral canal

Chiari type I malformation

230

tumor of superficial temporal lobe with attenuation of the overlying skull

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (type of neuronal tumor)

231

cerebellar vermis is absent or barely there

Dandy-walker malformation

232

cutaneous hyperpigmented spots (café au lait spots

NF1

233

inflammation that is most severe in the brainstem

rabies

234

perikaryon of neurons

Creutzfeldt-Jackob Dz (CJD

235

Meningitis associated septicemia with hem infarction of the adrenal glands and cutaneous petechiae

Waterhouse-friderichsen synd

236

lethargy

increased intracranial pressure
-brain abcess
-Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE)

237

hirano bodies

Alzheimers Dis

238

astrocytes that are sometimes filled with lipid

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

239

tangled vessels that are enlarged with lots of flow and pulsatile

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM)

240

rigid vessels, but no fibrosis

cerebral amyloid angiopathy (
-amyloid causes the rigidity

241

dialted lateral and 3rd ventricles

Huntingtons Ds

242

hydrocephalus

-Arnold-chiari malformation type II
-TB in CNS
-ependymomas if in posterior fossa
-medullobalstomas if they grow quickly

243

exudate over cerebral convexities over the sagittal sinus

meningitis from pnemonia

244

of chalky yellow plaques consisting of discrete regions of white matter necrosis and calcification

Periventricular leukamalacia

245

feeding prbs

Leigh synd

246

a neural tube defect that you must worry about infection

-Myelomeningocele (or meningomyelocele)
-meningocele

247

Battle’s sign

basal skull fracture
– reflecting orbital and mastoid hematomas

248

Cysticerososis

can cause non-communicating hydrocephalus

249

ataxia/athetosis

Cerebral palsy

250

pseudobulbar palsy

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
(Atypical Parkinsonism Syndrome)

251

bipolar with cystic and fibrillary areas in the same tumo

Pilocytic astrocytoma

252

facial n. palsies

Neuroborreliosis

253

basal leptomeninges: they are thickened and opaque obstruct the outflow of CSF form the foramina of luschka and magendie hydrocephalus

crytococcal (fungal) meningitis

254

tumor that affects the japanese

Primary germ cell tumors

255

degeneration of ascending and descending spinal tracts from a defect in myelin formation

Vit B12 deficiency

256

kuru plaques

Creutzfeldt-Jackob Dz (CJD
-extracellular deposits of aggregated protein, congo red and PAS positive that typically occur in the cerebellum (cerebral cortex for vCJD)

257

dystrophic mineralization and adjacent gliosis

exposure of methotrexate at the same time as radiation

258

eye movement prbs.

Ataxia-telangiectasia

259

tumor w anastamosing caps

oligodendroglioma

260

amyloid core can be stained with congo red

plaques of Alzheimers Dis

261

impaired upward gaze

increased intracranial pressure
-brain abcess

262

psammoma bodies.

meningiomas

263

cerebral dysfunction including headaches, confusion, vomiting, convulsions, and sometimes coma

HTN encephalopathy

264

Vertigo

Ischemia in the vertebrobasilar area

265

jerking of limbs

Corticobasal degeneration
-asymm motor disturbances

266

enlarged posterior fossa

Dandy-walker malformation

267

know as Pick bodies

FTLD-tau
-smooth contoured inclusions

268

ragged red fibers in the muscle

Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF)

269

a's in CNS have thickening of media and adventitia (filled w protein) but no sm

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

270

urinary inontinence, slow dementia, giat disturbance

Nml pressure hydrocephalus

271

patches of irregular, ill-defines white matter injury

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

272

spasticity

-Cerebral palsy
-Friedreich ataxia

273

tau in hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, amygdala

Alzheimers dis

274

masked facies

Parkinsons dis
-diminished facial expression

275

ophthalmoplegia

Wernicke encephalopathy (Thiamine (vit B1) deficiency)

276

Can lead to CHF do to shunt effects if a newborn is affected

vascular malformations

277

Ocular palsy

-Acute aseptic viral meningitis
-Arthropod borne viral encephalitis

278

necrotizing vasculitis with focal hem

Arthropod borne viral encephalitis

279

Lightning pains and loss of DTRs

Tabes dorsalis

280

Mood, memory, and behavior prbs

Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) encephalitis

281

mycobac avium-intracellulare

TB of CNS in AIDS pts
– lesions that contain confluent sheets of mfs filled w organisms, w few or no granulomas

282

when vascualr dementia preferentially involves large areas of the subcortical white matter with myelin and axon loss

Binswanger dz

283

Small, numerous, irregularly formed cerebral convolutions

Polymicrogyria

284

Plaques next to the lateral ventricles, optic nerves/chiasm, ascending/descending tracts, sc and brainstem

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

285

altered shape of the brainstem

Joubert syndrome

286

kernohan notch

transtentorial herniation

287

pallor of the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus

Parkinsons dis

288

change in language and math skills

Alzheimers dis (after mem)

289

Symmetrically dilated ventricles

Communicating hydrocephalus

290

stupor/coma

Arthropod borne viral encephalitis
-cerebral malaria
-Fatal familial insomnia (FFI)
-Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADE)

291

neck stiffness

-meningitis
-Subdural empyema

292

malaise

-TB of CNS
-rabies

293

magnetic gait

Nml pressure hydrocephalus

294

bat wing deformity where the lateral ventricles are misshapen

Agenesis of the corpus collosum

295

tumor attached to the dura

meningiomas

296

death from resp failure

rabies

297

internuclear ophthalmoplegia

MS

298

collections of neurons in wrong locations

Neural heterotopias

299

nuchal dystonia

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
(Atypical Parkinsonism Syndrome)

300

perivascular pseudorosettes

Ependymoma
-tumor is around the vessel with ependymal processes directed toward the wall

301

dropping objects and prbs with fine motor tasks

ALS early
-asymmetric weakness of the hands

302

Meningeal irritation

-meningitis
-rabies

303

resp m's weakened

ALS

304

trouble walking, speaking, or understanding, as well as paralysis or numbness of the face, arm, or leg

stroke (cerebrovasc dis)

305

high grade tumor arising from pineocytes

Pineoblastomas

306

neuronal achromasia

Corticobasal degeneration

307

Dementia, gait prbs, pseudobulbar signs, and other focal neurological deficits

Vascular dementia

308

strokes w reversible damage

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)

309

aseptic meningitis

-Neuroborreliosis
-HIV

310

change in visuospatial orientation

Alzheimers dis

311

metabolic prbs in those tissues affected

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)

312

Jerky, hyperkinetic, sometimes dystonic movements involving all parts of the body (chorea)

Huntingtons Ds

313

Tumor found within the ventricular system (esp lateral or 3rd)

Central neurocytoma

314

Tuberculomas

TB of CNS

315

CN s/s

MS

316

seizures, autism, and mental retardation

Tuberous sclerosis complex

317

osteomyelitis

Extradural abscess

318

giant cells

-TB of CNS
-HIV

319

disturbances of higher cortical fct and consciousness, w/o localizing signs

Fat emboli can happen after a bone fx causing CVD

320

cognitive decline

Subacute panencephalitis (SSPE)

321

red neurons

Acute neuronal injury: n death from depletion of glucose, O2, or trauma

322

Non-neoplastic enlarging cyst that grows on the roof of the 3rd ventricle where it can obstruct the foramina of monro to create non-communicating hydrocephalus

Colloid cyst of the 3rd ventricle(type of ependymoma)

323

Degeneration of LMNs

-Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy dz)
-Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)

324

compression of PCA

transtentorial herniation
-->ischemia of visal cortex

325

granulomatous arteritis

Varicella-zoster virus

326

Ataxia

-Ischemia in the vertebrobasilar area
-increased intracranial pressure
-brain abcess
-cerebral malaria
-Fatal familial insomnia (FFI)
-MS
-Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
-Friedreich ataxia
-Ataxia-telangiectasia
-Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF)

327

cerebellar tonsil scarring

chronic traumatic encephalopathy

328

Prominent enlarged cells with intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions

Cytomegalovirus

329

found w silver impregnation or for immunoperoxidase stains for axonally transported protiens

Diffuse axonal injury

330

caseous necrosis

TB of CNS

331

charcot joints

Tabes dorsalis
-loss of pain which can lead to skin and joint damage

332

renal angiomyolipomas, retinal glial hamartomas, pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and cardiac rhabdomyomas

Tuberous sclerosis complex

333

Androgen insensitivity

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy dz)

334

isolated loss of pain and temp in the upper extremities

Syringomyelia

335

extrapyramidal rigidity

Corticobasal degeneration

336

cloudy consciousness

meningitis

337

difficulty with voluntary eye movements

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
(Atypical Parkinsonism Syndrome)

338

change in behavior

increased intracranial pressure
-brain abcess

339

hem and necrosis in mammillary bodies and the walls of the 3rd and 4th ventricles

Wernicke encephalopathy (Thiamine (vit B1) deficiency)

340

tumors that spread along the surface of the brain

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors

341

myopathy

Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF)

342

(all of the symp of parkinsons)

Multiple system atrophy (MSA)

343

tachyzoites and encysted bradyzoites at periphery

Cerebral toxoplasmosis

344

extraocular palsies

Leigh synd

345

sensory neuropathy

Friedreich ataxia

346

progressive truncal rigidity

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
(Atypical Parkinsonism Syndrome)

347

myelin pallor

HIV

348

tufted astrocytes

Corticobasal degeneration
-Tau immunoreactivity found in astrocytes

349

cognitive deficits

cerebral malaria

350

Consist of aggregates of ectatic venous channels

Venous angiomas (varices)

351

Small posterior fossa

Arnold-chiari malformation type II

352

asscoc w prior radiation therapy to the head and neck decades earlier

meningiomas

353

vessels near the lesions: marked intimal proliferation or vasculitis with fribrinoid necrosis and thrombosis

Cerebral toxoplasmosis

354

misshapen midline cerebellum w/downward extension of vermis through the foramen magnum

Arnold-chiari malformation type II

355

plaque jaune

Old brain contusion
•Depressed, retracted, yellowish-brown patches involving the crests of gyri (plaque jaune).

356

abscesses mostly affect the cerebral cortex and the deep grey nuclei

Cerebral toxoplasmosis

357

acute encph characterized by numerous sharply circumscribed demyelinating leisons that undergo necrosis

Varicella-zoster virus in immunocomp ppl

358

ring enhancing lesions upon imaging

cerebral toxoplasmosis (NOT DEFINING)

359

Venous angioma of the spinal cord and overlying meninges: ischemic injury to the spinal cord and slowly progressive neuro symptoms

Foix-Alajouanine dz (angiodysgenetic necrotizing myelopathy):

360

ongoing myelin breakdown with lots of Mfs containing lipid-rich PAS-positive debris.
There are also lots of

active plaques of MS

361

wheelchair bound within 5y of onset

Friedreich ataxia

362

neuronophagia

-Arthropod borne viral encephalitis
-poliomyelitis in ant horn
-foci of necrosis in grey and white matter, esp single cell neuronal necrosis with phagocytosis of the debris

363

arrhinencephaly

Holoprosencephaly

364

irritability

meningitis

365

pill rolling tremor

Parkinsons dis

366

meningeal irritation

Poliomyelitis

367

only meninges (no neural tissue) that extends out of the opening

meningocele

368

greater than 20 per 10 high power fields

Anaplastic (malignant) meningiomas

369

tumors of similar poorly diff histology resembling medulloblastomas, from the peripheral tumor

CNS Supratentiorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS PNET)

370

edema and vascular congestion

rabies

371

aggregates of TDP-43 in nucleus, cytoplasm, or neurites

FTLD-TDP

372

nystagmus

MS

373

relative circumscription

-Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

374

general paresis of the insane

Paretic neurosyphilis
-Insidious and progressive cognitive impairment that results in mood prbs with delusions of grandeur that will end in severe dementia

375

changes in personality, behavior, and language come about before changes in memory

Frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLDs)

376

small cysts within the parenchyma (soap bubbles)

crytococcal (fungal) meningitis

377

Widespread lesions involving white matter

embolization of bone marrow after trauma causing CVD

378

Parenchymal damage of the frontal lobe

Paretic neurosyphilis
-loss of neurons, proliferation of microglia, gliosis, and iron deposits

379

cognitive and motor deterioration

Neuronal storage dzs: Ceroid lipocuscinoses

380

meningitis that involves the base of the brain

Meningovascular neurosyphilis

381

large destructive cysts

Multicystic encephalopathy

382

includes rhabdoid cells

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors

383

CSF drainage compromised bc foramina or Luschka and Magendie not formed

Dandy-walker malformation

384

spastic weakness in the lower extremities

Vit B12 deficiency

385

Gliomas can also occur in these pts, typically these are ependymomas

NF2

386

Rosenthal fibers

-pilocytic astrocytoma in post fossa
-Alexander dz

387

hamartomas and benign tumors in the brain or other tissues

Tuberous sclerosis complex

388

coiled bodies

Corticobasal degeneration
-Tau immunoreactivity found in oligodendtocytes

389

blindness

toxic disorder from methanol
-killing off the retinal ganglion cell

390

chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

391

Unilateral visual prbs

MS
- from damage to the optic nerve (optic neuritis, retrobulbar neuritis

392

Palsy 1+ CNs

Ischemia in the vertebrobasilar area

393

Lafora bodies

mycoclonic epilepsy

394

chronic adhesive arachnoiditis

-pneumococcal meningitis
-TB of CNS
-capsular polysaccharide of the bug can make a gelatinous exudate the promotes arachnoid fibrosis

395

Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granular bodies

Pilocytic astrocytoma

396

perivascular pigment laden or foamy Mfs

HIV

397

local paresthesias around the wound

rabies

398

develop renal cell carcinoma and pheochromocytoma

Von Hippel-Lindau ds

399

brain is protruding into the defect

Encephalocele

400

rigidity

-Parkinsons dis
-Huntingtons Ds LATER

401

neurofibrillary tangles

Alzheimers Dis

402

poorly differentiated

medulloblastoma

403

Separated by gliotic tissue with evidence of prior hem

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM)

404

happens around vessels, but the damage is more severe and actually kills off the small blood vessels.

Acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis

405

Linked to fetal alcohol syndrome and HIV infection in utero

microcephaly

406

Microscopic foci of dialated thin walled vessels separated by normal parenchyma

Capillary telangiectasias

407

kyphoscoliosis

Friedreich ataxia

408

Pts that have many b/l grey and white matter infarcts over many years might get:

Vascular dementia

409

periventricular necrosis with severe brain destruction followed later by microcephaly and periventricular calcification

Cytomegalovirus

410

Non- Symmetrically dilated ventricles

Noncommunicating (obstructive) hydrocephalus

411

hypokinetic mvmt

Parkinsons dis

412

multiple microabscesses (maybe granulomas)

-candidiasis (fungal) Parenchymal infection in meningioencephalitis

413

lesions in the filum terminale

Myxopapillary ependymomas

414

spongiform change

-prion dis
-Leigh synd

415

venous thrombosis and hem infarction of the underlying brain

fulminant meningitis
-from phlebitis

416

Medium spiny neurons using GABA, encephalin, dynorphin, and substance P are esp affected

Huntingtons Ds

417

Expansion of the ependymal lined cord of the central canal of the cord

Hydromyelia

418

Negri bodies

rabies

419

-Early: pericap edema and hemorrhage

-hours: blood into white matter and subarachnoid space

-day: Pyknosis of the nucleus, eosinophilla of cytoplasm, and disintegration of the cell

brain contusion

420

spastiicty and choreoathetoid mvmts

cystic fibrosis

421

cutaneous lesions like angiofibromas, localized leathery patches (shagreen patches), hypopigmented areas (ash-leaf patches), and subungual patches

Tuberous sclerosis complex

422

infection from surgery of sinusitis

Extradural abscess

423

viral inclusions mostly found in the nuclei of oligodendrocytes and neurons

Subacute panencephalitis (SSPE)

424

after a while, very disabled, mute, immobile

Alzheimers dis