Flashcards in Ch. 3 American Legal Systems & Procedures Deck (67)
The American legal system focuses on both ________ law and ______ law.
criminal and civil
_______ law constitutes law that addresses crimes and punishment of crimes, and this _________ the behavior of individuals to ensure behavior is consistent with society's conception of socially and _______ appropriate behavior.
criminal; regulates; morally
Criminal laws represent crimes against the ______.
_______ law represents law that regulates the relationships between parties.
Both the federal and state court system have 3 levels of courts - name them.
1. trial court
2. an appeals or appelate court
3. Supreme Court
The federal trial court is referred to as the ________ _________ court. There are 94 district courts through the US and at least _____ in every state.
federal district; one
If a party appeals the district court's decision, she can bring a case in the ________ court, known as the Federal District Court of __________ . The party is allowed the first appeal as a matter of ______. There are ____ federal appeals courts that each cover several district courts in a geographic area.
appeals; appeals; right; 12
If a party wishes to appeal the decision of the federal circuit court (appeals court), she may seek to bring a case to the _________ court. The court has the __________ to determine if it will review decisions on appeal.
To bring an appeal to the Supreme court, a party must petition the Court for a ____ of ___________. It will be granted if ____ of the 9 justices agree to hear the case. The court only grants petitions for compelling reasons. If they hear a case and render a decision, the decision is ______.
writ of certiorari; 4; final
There are specialized federal courts that hear issues on things such as:
1. federal tax courts
2. federal bankruptcy courts
States have specialized courts such as:
1. family court
2. probate court
3. small claims court
A trial court is a court of ____________ jurisdiction, meaning it is the first court to consider an action.
An appeals court only has ___________ jurisdiction, meaning the power to review decisions of the ______ court.
_________ jurisdiction is limited to reviewing, affirming, revising, or modifying decisions of the lower courts.
T/F The appeals courts do/ do not conduct trials
Appellate courts only reverse or set aside the lower court's decision if it reflects a clear _______ or discretion.
On issues involving interpretation of law, _________ courts do not defer to the ______ court, and will reverse such decisions when they reflect an improper or unconstitutional application of the law.
________ means that the appellate court will send the case back to the lower court for a new trial so that the lower court can take other actions consistent with the appellate court's findings. Alternatively, the appellate court can ________ or set aside a previous decision.
A ________ court also has appellate jurisdiction but is limited to reviewed the decision of the _________ court.
The Constitution grants the ________ court original jurisdiction to hear certain cases including:
a. between __ or _____ _________
b. between the federal gov't and state
c. involving officials of foreign countries
d. by a state against citizens of another state or country.
Supreme; between 2 or more states
When the Supreme courts reviews decision, they give __________ to decision of fact and only overturn such decisions if they are clearly __________.
A supreme courts review of decisions involving interpretations of legal rules is __ _____, meaning it is entirely new and does not defer to the lower court's judgement.
The Federal Rules of ______ _________ (aka Federal Rules) govern the procedures for filing a civil suit in ________ court. States have adopted their own rules of procedures but are generally ________ to federal rules.
Civil Procedures; federal; parallel
Any party bringing suit must have _________, which is the legal right to bring the suit. This refers to the notion that the person who brings suit must have or imminently have a legally recognized injury, sometimes referred to as an _______-__-____.
_______ is the person who brings the suit and the person being sued is called the _________.
The documents parties file in connection with their lawsuit are called ___________.
The plaintiff files a __________ with the trial court setting forth the basis of her lawsuit. The court will isess a copy to the ____________ and a summons.
The defendant must respond to the complaint, called an _______ to the complaint. It must ______ or _____ the allegations within the complaint.
answer; admit or deny
The defendant may also raise defenses that would prevent the plaintiff from holding the defendant liable called an _____________ defense.