Flashcards in CH. 3 (Exam 1) Deck (56):
A clinically DESIRABLE action?
A clinically UNDESIRABLE reaction?
Undesirable response to drug; potentially harmful; occurs at usual therapeutic doses
Adverse drug reaction
List the 5 categories of adverse drug reactions?
Interference with natural defense mechanisms
A reaction effect resulting from a drug's effect on the target organs?
A reaction that occurs when a drug acts on a non target organ to produce undesirable effect?
A reaction genetically related abnormal drug response?
A drug reaction such as a rash or anaphylaxis?
A reaction that interfere with the body's defense that causes a pt to get infections more easily and have more trouble fighting them?
Interference with natural defense mechanisms
A drug reaction that effects the off spring?
Drugs that are safe to use during pregnancy?
Local anesthetic lidocaine
Drugs that contraindicated during pregnancy?
Nonsterodial anti inflammatory agents
Agents that cause congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities if introduced during gestation ?
Hypersensitivity: Type 1?
Immediate hypersensitivity; anaphylaxis
Hypersensitivity: Type 2?
Hypersensitivity: Type 3
Hypersensitivity: Type 4?
Reactions are mediated by sensitized T lymphocytes and macrophages?
EX: contact dermatitis
Type 4: delayed hypersensitivity
Mediated by IgE antibodies
Life threading and acute
Antigen-antibody complex is fixed to circulating RBC's resulting in lysis. Complement-dependent reactions involving either immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies
Type 2: Cytotoxic/Cytolytic
A reaction that is neither the drug's side effect nor an allergic reaction?
An allergic reaction to occur, an ingested drug must be metabolized to a reactive metabolite known as a ?
Adverse reaction: not predictable and not dose related?
Acts on target organs
Extensions of pharmacologic effects
Acts on nontarget organs
Which of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy risk categories is absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy?
A person who has an abnormal response to a medication based on a genetic component is said to have what type of event?
Signs and symptoms of type I anaphylactic shock include all except which of the following?
Which route of administration of penicillin is most likely to cause an anaphylactic reaction?
Which immunoglobulin (Ig) antibodies are involved in a type I immediate hypersensitivity drug reaction?
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
Tissue necrosis at the site of an injection is an example of which type of adverse drug reaction?
Drug interactions can produce either harmful or beneficial effects. Increasing the number of drugs prescribed to a patient increases the chances of drug interactions.
Both statements are true
The metabolism of an ingested drug to a reactive metabolite produces a(n):
In a __________ reaction, inflammation is produced by sensitized T lymphocytes and macrophages coming in contact with an antigen, producing lymphokines and cytokines.
Type IV (delayed-hypersensitivity) reaction
A drug that has an affinity for a receptor combines with the receptor and produces an effect is termed a(n)?
Which enteral route of administration is indicated for patients unable to take oral medications?
Which drug would have the longest half-life?
A drug that is given once a day instead of BID, TID, or QID
Which term best describes zero-order kinetics?
The liver enzymes that metabolize the drug become saturated at the usual therapeutic does.
Which factors would make a medication more readily able to be absorbed and distributed?
Unbound to plasma
Drugs that undergo the first-pass effect are given by which route of administration?
A noncompetitive antagonist binds to?
A different receptor site than the agonist, reducing the maximal response of the agonist.
Cell membranes are composed of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The membrane lipids make the membrane relatively permeable to ions and polar molecules.
true and false
Which properties affect a drug's ability to pass across the biologic membrane of the cell?
Degree of ionization
Molecular size and shape
Lipid-soluble substances move across the lipoprotein cell membrane by what type of mechanism?
Passive transfer by simple diffusion
The pH of the tissues at the site of administration and the dissociation characteristics (pKa) of the drug will determine the amount of drug present in the ionized and nonionized state.
The presence of infection in the tissue causes a(n) __________ in the pH of the tissue, __________ the effect of local anesthetics.
decrease and decreasing
The passage of drugs into various body fluid compartments such as plasma, interstitial fluids, and intracellular fluids is called
When an active drug is metabolized into a second active metabolite, how is the action of that drug affected?
Where is the primary site of metabolism by hydrolysis?
Drugs with a high first-pass effect must have a __________ oral-to-parenteral dose ratio if they are given orally.
Mathematical representation of the way drugs are removed from the body. Most common is first-order kinetics.