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Flashcards in CH. 3 (Exam 1) Deck (56):
1

A clinically DESIRABLE action?

Therapeutic effects

2

A clinically UNDESIRABLE reaction?

Adverse effect

3

Undesirable response to drug; potentially harmful; occurs at usual therapeutic doses

Adverse drug reaction

4

List the 5 categories of adverse drug reactions?

Toxic reaction
Side effect
Idiosyncratic reaction
Drug allergy
Interference with natural defense mechanisms

5

A reaction effect resulting from a drug's effect on the target organs?

Toxic reaction

6

A reaction that occurs when a drug acts on a non target organ to produce undesirable effect?

Side effect

7

A reaction genetically related abnormal drug response?

Idiosyncratic reaction

8

A drug reaction such as a rash or anaphylaxis?

Drug allergy

9

A reaction that interfere with the body's defense that causes a pt to get infections more easily and have more trouble fighting them?

Interference with natural defense mechanisms

10

A drug reaction that effects the off spring?

Teratogenic effect

11

Drugs that are safe to use during pregnancy?

Penicillin
Erythromycin
Acetaminophen
Local anesthetic lidocaine

12

Drugs that contraindicated during pregnancy?

Tetracycline
Nonsterodial anti inflammatory agents
Benzodiazepines
Metronidazole

13

Agents that cause congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities if introduced during gestation ?

Teratogens

14

Hypersensitivity: Type 1?

Immediate hypersensitivity; anaphylaxis

15

Hypersensitivity: Type 2?

Cytotoxic/cytolytic

16

Hypersensitivity: Type 3

Arthus

17

Hypersensitivity: Type 4?

Delayed hypersensitivity

18

Reactions are mediated by sensitized T lymphocytes and macrophages?
EX: contact dermatitis

Type 4: delayed hypersensitivity

19

Mediated by IgE antibodies

Type 1

20

Anaphylactic shock
Rhinitis
Asthma
Urticaria
Dermatitis
Hypotension
Bronchospam
Laryngeal edema
Cardiac arryrhmias

Type 1

21

Life threading and acute

Type 1

22

Antigen-antibody complex is fixed to circulating RBC's resulting in lysis. Complement-dependent reactions involving either immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies

Type 2: Cytotoxic/Cytolytic

23

A reaction that is neither the drug's side effect nor an allergic reaction?

Idiosyncrasy

24

An allergic reaction to occur, an ingested drug must be metabolized to a reactive metabolite known as a ?

Hapten

25

Adverse reaction: not predictable and not dose related?

Allergic reaction

26

Adverse reaction:
Predictable
Dose-related
Acts on target organs
Extensions of pharmacologic effects

Toxic reaction

27

Adverse reaction:
Predictable
Dose-related
Acts on nontarget organs

Side effect

28

Terato means

Monster

29

-genic means

Producing

30

Which of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy risk categories is absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy?

X

31

A person who has an abnormal response to a medication based on a genetic component is said to have what type of event?

Idiosyncratic reaction

32

Signs and symptoms of type I anaphylactic shock include all except which of the following?

Bronchospasm
Laryngeal edema
Hypotension
Hypertension (Correct)
Cardiac arrhythmias

33

Which route of administration of penicillin is most likely to cause an anaphylactic reaction?

Intravenous

34

Which immunoglobulin (Ig) antibodies are involved in a type I immediate hypersensitivity drug reaction?

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)

35

Tissue necrosis at the site of an injection is an example of which type of adverse drug reaction?

Local effect

36

Drug interactions can produce either harmful or beneficial effects. Increasing the number of drugs prescribed to a patient increases the chances of drug interactions.

Both statements are true

37

The metabolism of an ingested drug to a reactive metabolite produces a(n):

Hapten

38

In a __________ reaction, inflammation is produced by sensitized T lymphocytes and macrophages coming in contact with an antigen, producing lymphokines and cytokines.

Type IV (delayed-hypersensitivity) reaction

39

A drug that has an affinity for a receptor combines with the receptor and produces an effect is termed a(n)?

Agonist

40

Which enteral route of administration is indicated for patients unable to take oral medications?

Rectal

41

Which drug would have the longest half-life?

A drug that is given once a day instead of BID, TID, or QID

42

Which term best describes zero-order kinetics?

The liver enzymes that metabolize the drug become saturated at the usual therapeutic does.

43

Which factors would make a medication more readily able to be absorbed and distributed?

Nonionic form
Lipid Soluble
Unbound to plasma

44

Drugs that undergo the first-pass effect are given by which route of administration?

oral

45

A noncompetitive antagonist binds to?

A different receptor site than the agonist, reducing the maximal response of the agonist.

46

Cell membranes are composed of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The membrane lipids make the membrane relatively permeable to ions and polar molecules.

true and false

47

Which properties affect a drug's ability to pass across the biologic membrane of the cell?

Lipid solubility
Degree of ionization
Molecular size and shape

48

Lipid-soluble substances move across the lipoprotein cell membrane by what type of mechanism?

Passive transfer by simple diffusion

49

The pH of the tissues at the site of administration and the dissociation characteristics (pKa) of the drug will determine the amount of drug present in the ionized and nonionized state.

true

50

The presence of infection in the tissue causes a(n) __________ in the pH of the tissue, __________ the effect of local anesthetics.

decrease and decreasing

51

The passage of drugs into various body fluid compartments such as plasma, interstitial fluids, and intracellular fluids is called

Distribution

52

When an active drug is metabolized into a second active metabolite, how is the action of that drug affected?

prolonged

53

Where is the primary site of metabolism by hydrolysis?

Blood plasma

54

Drugs with a high first-pass effect must have a __________ oral-to-parenteral dose ratio if they are given orally.
Larger Correct

Larger

55

Mathematical representation of the way drugs are removed from the body. Most common is first-order kinetics.

Kinetics

56

Rate of metabolism remains the same over time
Examples of drugs: Aspirin and Alcohol

Zero-Order Kinetics