CH 32 - Environmental Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 32 - Environmental Emergencies Deck (54):
1

Conduction example

Heat loss resulting from sitting on snow

2

Air embolism

Condition caused by air bubbles in the blood vessel

3

Evaporation example

Heat loss resulting from sweating

4

Hyperthermia

Core temperature greater than 101 degrees F (38.3 degrees C)

5

Diving reflex

Slowing of heart rate caused by submersion in cold water

6

Core temperature

Temperature of the heart, lungs, and vital organs

7

Convection example

Heat loss that occurs from helicopter rotor blade downwash

8

Laryngospasm

Spasm of the larynx and vocal cords

9

Turgor

Ability of the skin to resist deformation

10

Radiation example

Heat loss resulting from standing in a cold room

11

Hypothermia

Condition when body temperature decreases

12

Ambient temperature

Temperature of the surrounding environment

13

Heat cramps

Painful muscle spasms that occur after vigorous exercise

14

Drowning

Respirator impairment from submersion in liquid

15

Hymenoptera

Bees, wasps, ants, and yellow jackets

16

____ causes body heat to be lost as warm air in the lungs is exhaled into the atmosphere and cool air is inhaled?

Respiration causes body heat to be lost as ____ air in the lungs is exhaled into the atmosphere and ____ air is inhaled.

17

Evaporation, the conversion of a liquid to a gas, is a process that requires what?

Energy is required to convert liquid to gas, also known as what?

18

Rate and amount of heat loss by the body that can be modified by...

The following characteristics can modify ____ and ____ of heat loss...
-Increased heat production
-Moving to an area where heat loss is decreased
-Wearing insulated clothing

19

Blue lips and/or fingertips in hypothermia is the result of what?

Blood vessels constricting in hypothermia results in what type of characteristics?

20

Signs and symptoms of severe systemic hypothermia include...

The following characteristics are signs and symptoms of severe ____ ____ ...
-Weak pulse
-Coma
-Very slow respirations

21

Hypothermia is more common among which type of people?

The following individuals are more susceptible to what?
-Older individuals
-Infants and children
-Those who are already ill

22

To assess a patient's core body temperature, pull back your glove and place the back of your hand on the patient's...

Pulling back your glove and placing the back of your hand on the abdomen underneath the clothing assesses what?

23

Never assume that a ____, pulseless patient is dead.

A cold, pulseless patient should never be assumed ____.

24

Management of hypothermia in the field consists of which characteristics?

The following characteristics in the field manages what type of sickness?
-Applying heat packs to the groin, axillary, and cervical regions
-Removing wet clothing
-Preventing further heat loss

25

What conditions refer to when exposed body parts of the body become very cold, but not frozen?

The following conditions refer to when exposed parts of the body become ____ but not ____.
-Frostnip
-Trench foot
-Immersion foot

26

When heat gain exceeds heat loss, ____ results.

Hyperthermia results when heat gain ____ heat loss.

27

What factors contribute to the development of heat illnesses?

The following factors contribute to the development of what illness?
-High air temperature
-Vigorous exercise
-High humidity

28

When obtaining a SAMPLE history for a patient with a diving emergency, what dive parameter characteristics should you pay special attention to?

When obtaining a SAMPLE history, the following dive parameters may assist with what type of emergency?
-Depth
-Length of time the patient was underwater
-Time of onset of symptoms

29

What are signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion and associated hypovolemia?

The following signs and symptoms indicate ____ ____ and associated hypovolemia...
-Cold, clammy skin with ashen pallor
-Dizziness, weakness, or faintness
-Normal vital signs

30

Most spinal injuries in diving incidents affect which part section of the spine?

Most cervical spine injuries are affected in what type of incidents? (environmental emergencies)

31

What is often times the first sign of heat stroke?

A change of behavior is often times the first sign of what?

32

The least common but most serious illness caused by heat exposure, occurring when the body is subjected to more heat than it can handle and normal mechanisms for getting rid of excess heat are overwhelmed, is what?

Heat stroke is the least ____ but most ____ illness caused by heat exposure, occurring when the body is subjected to more heat than it can handle and normal mechanisms of getting rid of excess heat are overwhelmed.

33

Laryngospasm is the body's reaction to inhaling what?

Inhaling small amounts of water can cause what?

34

Treatment of drowning and/or near drowning begins with what?

Rescue and removal from water is the first treatment of what?

35

In a diving emergency, what occurs when bubbles of gas, especially nitrogen, obstruct the blood vessels?

Decompression sickness in a diving emergency occurs when what obstructs blood vessels?

36

Young children can drown in as little as how much water if left unattended?

Who can drown in as little as 1 inch of water if left unattended?

37

Why should you never give up on resuscitating a cold-water drowning victim?

You should never give up on resuscitating what type of victim who has hypothermia, which protects vital organs from lack of oxygen?

38

What are the three phases of a dive, in the order they occur?

Descent, bottom, and ascent are the three phases of what?

39

Which area in the body usually affects descent problems?

The lungs usually affect what type of problems? (environmental emergencies)

40

What are potential problems associated with rupture of the lungs?

The following problems are associated with rupture of what organ?
-Air emboli (blockage of blood supply caused by air bubbles in blood vessel or heart)
-Pneumomediastinum (presence of air in mediastinum)
-Pneumothorax (presence of air in lungs)

41

What organs are most severely affected by air embolism?

The brain and spinal cord are most severely affected by what?

42

Where can black widow spiders be found?

What do the following items/places have in common?
-New Hampshire
-Woodpiles
-Georgia

43

Coral snake venom is a powerful toxin that causes what in the nervous system?

Paralysis within the nervous system can be caused by what environmental emergency?

44

Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease are both spread through the tick's...

The saliva of ticks can cause what two diseases?

45

What are signs of envenomation by a pit viper?

The following characteristics are signs of ____ by what organism?
-Swelling
-Ecchymosis
-Severe burning pain at the site of the injury

46

How do you properly remove a tick?

The removal of what type of organism is accomplished by using fine tweezers to pull it straight out of the skin?

47

What are the characteristics of a brown recluse spider?

What organism has the following characteristics...
-Mostly lives in the southern and central parts of the US
-Venom is not neurotoxic
-Bites rarely cause systemic signs and symptoms (systemic is in relation to the circulatory system and its concern with transferring O2 & CO2)

48

What is the treatment for a snake bite from a pit viper?

The following steps are to treat what illness?
-Calm the patient
-Do not administer anything orally
-Mark the skin with pen over swollen area to note whether swelling is spreading

49

What is typically the first sign of heat stroke?

Behavior is typically the first sign of what illness?

50

What is normal body temperature?

What is the significance of 98.6 degrees F?

51

What is the body's most efficient heat-regulating mechanism?

Sweating and dilation of skin blood vessels are the body's most efficient ____ ____ mechanism.

52

Diving reflex

Immediate bradycardia after jumping in cold water

53

Why should you avoid actively rewarming patients who have moderate to severe hypothermia?

Patients with what type of illness are more prone to ventricular fibrillation which can develop into cardiac dysrhythmias?

54

Mild hypothermia occurs when the core is what temperature?

What occurs when the core temperature of a body is between 90-95 degrees F?