Ch 4. Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Ch 4. Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 4. Cardiovascular System Deck (53):
1

2-D Echocardiography

Cross-sectional sonographic imaging of the heart demonstrating the heart chambers, valves, major vessels, and cardiac output

2

Adventitia

The outermost layer of connective tissue covering major organs and vessels within the body

3

Aneurysm

A localized ballooning or out-pouching of a vessel wall as a result of weakening from atherosclerotic disease, trauma, infection, or congenital defects

4

Arteries

Blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart

5

Atherosclerosis

A common form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of fibrofatty plaque or thickenings form within the intimate or intermedia of large and medium sized arteries

6

Atrial Septal Defects

An abnormal opening between the right and left atria of the heart which allows mixing of oxygenated and un-oxygenated blood within the atria

7

Capillaries

Small blood vessels connecting venues and arterioles which allow the exchange of water, gases, and nutrients within the blood

8

Cardiomegaly

The appearance of an enlarged heart, as indicative of many cardiovascular disorders

9

Coarctation of the Aorta

A narrowing or compression of the aorta

10

Congestive Heart Failure

Condition existing when the heart is unable to propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume to prevent congestion of circulatory subsystems

11

Cor Pulmonale

Hypertension in the pulmonary artery and an enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart

12

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Disease of the arteries of the heart often resulting from deposition of atheroma in the arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle

13

Diastole

The phase of the heart cycle in which the myocardium is relaxing

14

Dissecting Aneurysm

An aneurysm resulting from hemorrhage that causes longitudinal splitting of the arterial wall

15

Doppler Echocardiography

A procedure that uses ultrasound technology to examine the heart or blood vessels

16

Ductus Arteriosus

The blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta in the fetus which should normally close at birth

17

Embolization

Interventional angiography procedure in which devices such as coils are used to intentionally clot off vessels, often before surgery to prevent excessive bleeding

18

Endocardium

The inner membrane layer of tissue lining the heart

19

Epicardium

The inner layer of pericardium surrounding the heart which forms an outer layer of connective tissue covering the heart

20

Foramen Ovale

An opening between the right and left atria of the fetal heart which should normally close at birth

21

Fusiform Aneurysm

An arterial aneurysm in which the entire circumference of the vessel wall is affected

22

Gated Cardiac Blood Pool Scan

A gated nuclear medicine procedure of the heart that demonstrates heart motion and the ejection of blood from the heart

23

Heart

A hollow muscular organ that pumps the blood through the circulatory system by rhythmic contraction and dilation.

24

Infarct

An area of ischemic necrosis

25

Intima

The spread and multiplication of a pathogenic organism or malignant cells

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Ischemia

A local and temporary impairment of circulation caused by obstruction of circulation

27

Lumen

The inner, tubular structure of a vessel

28

Media

The middle, muscular layer of a vessel wall

29

M-mode Echocardiography

Dynamic, one dimensional sonographic images of the heart

30

Murmur

An abnormal extra heart sound indicating a structural or functional defect of the heart

31

Myocardial Perfusion Scan

A type of nuclear medicine procedure. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance, called a radionuclide, is used during the procedure to assist in the examination of the tissue under study

32

Myocardium

The muscular layer of the heart

33

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Abnormal persistence of an open ductus arterioles after birth, resulting in recirculation of arterial blood through the lungs

34

Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

Use of a specialized catheter, typically equipped with an inflatable balloon, to perform vessel repair from within the artery or vein during angiography

35

Permanent Catherterization

Interventional angiography procedure, in which a catheter is placed in the subclavian or jugular vein and tunneled under skin to allow for improved dialysis access

36

Phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein, often associated with venous thrombosis

37

Pulmonary Embolus

A mass of foreign matter present in a pulmonary artery or one of its branches

38

Rheumatic Fever

An illness that results from an untreated strep throat condition

39

Saccular Aneurysm

A localized sac affecting only a part of the circumference of an arterial wall

40

Sinoatrial Node

The heart's pacemaker. This is a bundle of nerve fibers located in the upper portion of the right atrium near the superior vena cava; from this node an electrical current is transmitted through the myocardium, resulting in a heartbeat

41

Stent

A specialized device placed to provide patency, usually in a vessel or duct

42

Systole

The phase of the heart cycle during which the myocardium is contracting

43

Tetralogy of Fallot

A combination of four congenital cardiac defects: pulmonary stenosis, ventricular central defect, overriding aorta, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle

44

Thrombolysis

An interventional angiography procedure in which urokinase, a high-intensity anticoagulant, is dripped over a period of hours directly onto a clot to dissolve it

45

Thrombophlebitis

The presence of inflammation and blood clots within a vein

46

Thrombus

A blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel

47

Transesophageal Echocardiography

A type of echocardiographic procedure in which the patient swallows a mobile, flexible probe

48

Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

An interventional angiography procedure in which a catheter is used to connect the jugular vein to the portal vein to reduce the flow of blood through a diseased liver

49

Transposition of Great Vessels

Congenital malformation of the cardiovascular system, in which the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the left ventricle

50

Valvular Stenosis

Narrowing of the valve

51

Veins

The tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body, carrying in most cases oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart

52

Venous Thrombosis

The formation of blood clots within a vein

53

Ventricular Septal Defects

An abnormal opening between the right and left ventricles of the heart allowing the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood