Ch 40: Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation Flashcards Preview

LS 2 > Ch 40: Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 40: Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation Deck (37):
1

Cardiovascular/Circulatory System

Heart + blood vessels
Blood vessels transport blood that contains O2, CO2, nutrients, and waste

2

Lymphatic/Immune System

Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels
Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes)
Attacks foreign substances in the body

3

Respiratory System

Gas exchange - intake of CO2, outtake of CO
Keeps blood supplied with oxygen

4

Digestive System

Breaks down food into absorbable units

5

Urinary/Excretory System

Eliminates nitrogenous wastes
Regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance

6

Testes

Produce sperm and male sex hormones

7

Ovaries

Produce eggs and female sex hormones

8

Epithelial tissues

Sheets of densely packed, tightly connected cells
Creates boundaries between the inside and outside of the body
Transports, filters, and secretes substances
Location: surfaces of skin, organs, blood vessels, etc.

9

Muscle tissues

Elongated cells that generate force and cause movement
Most abundant tissues

10

Skeletal Muscles

Attached to bones
Responsible for body movement
Highly organized structure
Nuclei are squeezed to the side

11

Cardiac muscles

Make up the heart
Responsible for heartbeats and blood flow
Mesh like structure allows cells to easily couple

12

Smooth muscles

Make up walls of internal organs
Move and generate forces in these organs

13

Connective tissues

Connect, support, bind, or separate other tissues and organs
Extracellular matrix contains protein fibers
Has collagen and elastin

14

Cartilage

Cells that cushion joints
Provide structural support with flexibility

15

Bone

Cells that provide support
Hardened by calcium phosphate deposition in the matrix

16

Blood

Cells float in a very liquid extracellular matrix (blood plasma)

17

Adipose

Cells that store energy, cushion organs, and prevent heat loss
Stores nutrients into droplets

18

White adipose

Stores large droplets of lipids as fat
Secretes hormones and inflammatory molecules
Majority of adipose in the human body

19

Brown adipose

Produces heat
Packed with mitochondria and blood vessels
Found primarily in the neck and collarbone

20

Neural tissue

Neurons + glial cells
Processes info

21

Neurons

Cells that encode and conduct info as electrical signals
Release chemical signals to targets

22

Neurotransmitters

Chemical signals

23

Glial cells

Provide support functions for neurons
Don't generate electrical signals

24

Homeostasis

The maintenance of a narrow range of stable conditions in an internal environment to allow optimal body functions despite changes in external conditions

25

Effectors

Molecules that effect changes in the internal environment

26

Set point

Reference point

27

Error signal

Difference between the set point and feedback information

28

Negative feedback

Effectors counteract error signals
Most common
Circular cycle

29

Positive feedback

Amplification of a response
Increases deviation from a set point
Push forward until it reaches a limit
Out of control unless something else acts on it

30

Feedforward information

Change in the set point
Requires planning

31

Ectotherms

Organisms that rely on an external temp to determine their internal temp

32

Endotherms

Regulate temp through internal mechanisms
Most mammals

33

Heterotherms

A mixture of ectotherm and endotherm

34

Stable temperature

Heat in = heat out

35

Metabolism

Chemical reactions that break down and synthesize molecules
Cause an increase in heat
Contracting muscles and brown adipose increase this

36

Exogenous pyrogens

Foreign substances
Ex. bacteria or viruses

37

Endogenous pyrogens

Produced by active immune cells in response to an infection