ch 54, 58, and 59 Flashcards Preview

OB 2015 > ch 54, 58, and 59 > Flashcards

Flashcards in ch 54, 58, and 59 Deck (83):
1

Enlargement of the fetal cranium as a result of ventriculomegaly

macrocephaly

2

Most severe form of holoprosencephaly characterized by a single common ventricle and a malformed brain

alobar holoprosencephaly

3

Increase in size of the jugular lymphatic sacs caused by abnormal development

cystic hygroma

4

Neural tube defect of the spine in which the dorsal vertebrae fail to fuse together, allowing the protrusion of meninges and/or spinal cord through the defect

spina bifida

5

Abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles leading to dilatation of the ventricle; compression of developing brain tissue and brain damage may result; commonly associated with additional fetal anomalies

ventriculomegaly

6

An abnormality or congenital malformation

anomaly

7

Congenital absence of the cerebral hemispheres caused by occlusion of the carotid arteries, midbrain structures are present, and fluid replaces cerebral tissue

hydranencephaly

8

Open spinal defect characterized by protrusion of meninges and spinal cord through the defect, usually within a meningeal sac

meningomyelocele

9

Ventriculomegaly in the neonate, abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles resulting in compression and, frequently, destruction of brain tissue

hydrocephalus

10

Form of holoprosencephaly characterized by a common ventricle, hypotelorism, and a nose with a single nostril

cebocephaly

11

Closed defect of the spine without protrusion of meninges or spinal cord

spina bifida occulta

12

Neural tube defect characterized by lack of development of the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and cranial vault; this abnormality is incompatible with life

anencephaly

13

Condition associated with anencephaly in which there is complete or partial absence of the cranial bones

acrania

14

Severe form of holoprosencephaly characterized by a common ventricle, fusion of the orbits with one or two eyes present, and a proboscis

cyclopia

15

Open spinal defect characterized by protrusion of the spinal meninges

meningocele

16

Range of abnormalities resulting from abnormal cleavage of the forebrain

holoprosencephaly

17

Malformation of the lymphatic system that leads to single or multiloculated lymph filled cavities around the neck

fetal cystic hygroma

18

premature closure of cranial sutures

craniosynostoses

19

underdevelopment of the jaw and cheek bone and abnormal ears

treacher collins syndrome

20

head smaller than the body

microcephaly

21

cystic dilatation of the lacrimal sac at the nasocanthal angle

dacryocystocele

22

absent eyes

anophthalmia

23

small chin

micrognathia

24

congenital defect caused by an extra chromosome, which causes a deficiency in the forebrain

holoprosencephaly

25

absence of the nose

arrhinia

26

increased thickness in the nuchal fold area in the back of the neck associalted with trisomy 21

nuchal lucency

27

abnormal protrusion of the eyeball

exophthalmia

28

protrusion of the brain from the cranial cavity

cephalocele

29

enlargement of the thyroid gland

fetal goiter (thyromegaly)

30

hereditary disease caused by failure to oxidize an amino acid (phenylalanine) to tyrosine because of a defective enzyme, can lead to mental retardation

phenylketonuria (PKU)

31

eyes too far apart

hypertelorism

32

underdevelopment of the eyes, fingers, and mouth

oculodentodigital dysplasia

33

eyes too close together

hypotelorism

34

small eyes

microphthalmia

35

Premature closure of the metopic suture

trigonocephaly

36

Micrognathia and abnormal smallness of the tongue, usually with a cleft palate

pierre robin sequence

37

eye disorder in which optic axes cannot be directed to the same object

strabismus

38

abnormal smallness of one side of the face

hemifacial microsomia

39

group of disorders having in common the coexistence of an omphalocele, macroglossia, and visceromegaly

beckwith wiedemann syndrome

40

teratoma located in the oropharynx

epignathus

41

hypertrophied tongue

macroglossia

42

a cylindrical protuberance of the face that in cyclopia or ethmocephaly represents the nose

proboscis

43

underdevelopment of the jaw that causes the ears to be located close together toward the front of the neck

otocephaly

44

cystic defect that arises from the primitive branchial apparatus

branchial cleft cyst

45

solid tumor

teratoma

46

What is the best plane to image cleft lip and pallet?

Modified Coronal View

47

premature closure of any or all six of the cranial sutures and causes fetal cranium to become abnormally shaped .

craniosynostosis

48

Extensive facial screening may be hindered by

Bone Shadowing
poor fetal position
oligohydramnios
maternal obesity

49

what is the optimal gestational age for measuring the NT

11 weeks to 13 weeks, 6 days

50

Most common neck mass

cystic hygroma colli (lymphatic obstruction)

51

% of cystic hygromas associated w/ chromosomal anamalies

50%

52

what does a Proboscis suggest

holoprosencephaly

53

what is the most common malformation of the face

cleft lip (with or without cleft palate)

54

what are the differential considerations for cystic hygroma

meningomyelocele
encephalocele
nuchal edema
branchial cleft cyst
cystic teratoma
hemangioma
thyroglossal duct cyst

55

small chin

micrognathia

56

What is elongated forehead in sag plane and triangular in axial plane

trigonocephaly

57

Nasal triad is what and what should it include?

nostril symmetry
nasal septum integrity
continuity of the upper lip to exclude cleft lip and palate.

58

Cleft lip with or w/o pallet seen more in what groups

native americans

59

ear malformations can be found in what

treacher collins syndrome
goldenhars syndrome
hemifacial microsomia
roberts syndrome
collins syndrome
otocephaly

60

fetal goider.........

usually appears as a symmetrical (bilobed), solid, homogeneous mass arising from the anterior fetal neck in the region of the thyroid gland. (page 1286)

61

How many facial anomalies occur in how many births

1 in 600 births

62

Which neural tube defect is a result of lack of cerebral hemisphere and vault

anencephaly

63

What central nervous system anomaly shows splaying in the cerebellar hemispheres

Dandy Walker Malformation

64

Complete or absence of cranial bones is what

acrania (AKA exencephaly)

65

Other anomalies associated with anencephaly

cleft lip and palate
hydronephrosis
diaphragmatic hernia
cardiac defects
omphalocele
gastrointestinal defects
talipes

66

Most severe form of holoprosencephaly

alobar holoprosencephaly

67

Absence of cavum septum pellucidum is a characteristic of what

holoprosencephaly

68

Facial anomalies associated with holoprosencephaly

cyclopia
hypotelorism
absent nose
flattened nose with single nostril
proboscis
cebocephaly
ethmocephaly
facial clefts

69

Characteristics that go with Arnold chiari malformation

associated with spina bifida in which the cerebellum and brain stem are pulled toward the spinal cord and secondary hydrocephalus develops

Characterized:
1) Chiari 1 - downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils, without displacement of the fourth ventricle
2) Chiari 2 - Most common and greatest clinical importance because of it's association with meningomyelocele
3) Chiari 3 - High cervical encephalomeningocele in which the medulla, fourth ventricle, and cerebellum reside

70

What has posterior fossa cyst and splaying of cerebelar hemisphere

Dandy Walker Malformation

71

Absence of cerebral hemispheres resulting in occlusion of carotid arteries

hydranencephaly

72

What measurement is ventriculomegoly

> 10 mm

73

What open spinal defect is characterized by protrusion of meninges and spinal cord through a defect

meningomyelocele

74

Conditions associated with fetal hydrocephalis

occurs when ventriculomegaly is coupled with enlargement of the fetal head

aqueductal stenosis
arachnoid cysts
galen aneurysms

75

Ventriculomegoly with a large head is what

hydrocephalis

76

Most common open neural tube defect

spina bifida

77

Fetal head anomaly characterized by single ventricle

alobar holoprosencephaly

78

Vein of galen

rare arteriovenous malformation

vein is enlarged and will communicate with normal appearing arteries

sporadic event with male predominance

usually isolated anomaly

79

Different forms of holoprosencephaly

alobar, most severe
semilobar, intermediate
lobar, mildest

80

True or False question about microcephaly

microcephaly is on page 1308

81

Differential considerations for anencephaly

microcephaly
acrania
cephalocele

82

Herneation of meninges and brain through calvarium defect

encephalomeningocele (form of cephalocele)

83

Differential considerations for dandy walker malformation

arachnoid cyst
cerebellar hypoplasia