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Flashcards in Ch 7 Deck (33):

What is ethics?

Moral principles and values applied to social behavior
How moral principles are applied to ones life


What are business ethics?

What constitutes right or wrong behavior and he application of moral principles in a business context


What contributed to the 2008 recession?

Ethical problems by many US financial institutions


What is the moral minimum?

Minimum degree of ethical behavior expected of a business firm, usually defined as compliance with law

Just because something is legal doesn't mean it's ethical


What is often the goal of a company?

Profit maximization


How may a company adhesive short run profit maximization?

May continue to sell a profit even if it is defective

Over emphasis is the most common reason ethical problems occur


What happens when a company is attempting to achieve long run profit maximization?

Company's tend to avoid things that could cause had publicity and law suits thoroughgoing unethical behavior


What is a company's best bet to deadline its ethics?

When not sure how a law applies, a company's best defense to allocations of misconduct is to show that the firm acted honestly and responsibly under the circumstances


What is one of the best ways to create an ethical workplace?

To have top managers who demonstrate its commitment to ethical decision making

Do not set goals unrealistically high


What does a code of conduct do?

States a company's ethical priorities and demonstrates the company's commitment to ethical behavior


How is an ethical code effective?

By being clearly communicated it its employees
Large firms have ethics training programs
Small firms offer some form of ethic training


What is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act?

Help reduce corporate fraud and eu thick decisions
Confidential systems so employees can raise red flags about suspected illegal or unethical auditing and accounting practices


What is a stock buyback?

The purchase of shares of a company's own stock by that company on an open market
This cause price to be boosted


Who benefits from stock buybacks?

Corporate executives with stock options

Which enables them to buy shares of corporation's stock at a set price

Technically legal but can be abused if used just to increase stock prices in the short term, without considering long term needs of the company


What was the problem with the American International Group?

Insurance company, lost millions of dollars from attempting create financial contracts, sought bailout but executives went to 400,000 dolla retreat


What was done about executive bonuses?

A provision was added to the American Recovery and Reinvestment tax act to restrict what bonuses could be given after receiving bailout funds


What is ethical reasoning?

A reasoning process in which an individual links his or her moral convictions or ethical standards to the particular situation at hand

Duty based and outcome based


What are religious ethical standards?

Christian tradition, based off of 10 commandments
These are typically absolute


What are kantian ethics?

Ethics derived from philosophical reasoning
Kant- a persons thoughts and actions should be respected

Categorical imperative


What is categorical imperative?

Ethical guideline developed by Kant that an action is evaluated by what would happen if everyone else in the same situation acted the same way


what are the principles of rights?

Human beings have basic rights
Whether an action is ethical depends on how it affects the rights of various groups.

Natural law embraces this


What is a potential problem with the principle of rights?

People's rights sometimes conflict
Whoever right is stronger takes precedent


What is utilitarianism?

Greatest good for the greatest number of people
Action evaluated in terms of who it will affect


What is required in a utilitarianism approach?

Determination of individuals affected by an action
Cost-benefit analysis
Choice among alternative actions that will produce maximum social utility


What is a cost-benefit analysis?

A decision-making technique that involves weighing the costs of a given action against the benefits of that action


What is the corporate social responsibility?

The idea hat corporations can and should act ethically and be accountable to society for their actions

Stakeholder approach
Corporate citizenship
A way of doing business


What is the stakeholders approach?

Responsibility to all groups affected by corporate decisions


What is corporate citizenship?

Should promote goals that society deems worthwhile and taking positive steps towards attempting to solve social problems


When is corporate responsibility most beneficial?

When actives are relevant and significant to its stakeholders


What guidelines should be used making ethical business decisions?

The law, is it legal?
Rules and procedures, internal to company
Values, spirit of the law
Heroes, what action would you hero take


What are some practical solutions to corporate ethics questions?

Discussion, list of options and goals
Justification, does solution withstand scrutiny


What is the foreign corrupt practices act?

It prohibits hue bribing of foreign officials to secure advantageous contracts

Also must have accounting records that provides everything was done legally


What is "grease"?

Significant to minor officials whose duties are ministerial
Facilitating payments