Ch. 7 - Benign brain tumors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 7 - Benign brain tumors Deck (28)
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0

Most common benign brain tumor

Meningioma (15% of all intracranial tumors, peak incidence in middle age, women > men)

1

What layer of the meninges do meningiomas arise from?

Arachnoid layer (arachnoid villi and granulations)

2

Etiology of meningioma

Head trauma, irradiation, NF-2 (esp. multiple meningiomas), female gender is risk factor (hormonal?)

3

Most common meningioma locations

Parasagittal region (superior sagittal sinus or falx) > posterior fossa convexity > sphenoidal wing

4

If multiple meningioma are present, what is the most likely etiology?

NF-2

5

What is the meningioma classification system based on?

Position of origin, NOT histology

6

Psammoma bodies

Whorls of cells which may undergo hyaline degeneration with subsequent deposition of calcium salts; seen in transient type meningiomas

7

Clinical presentation of meningioma

Raised ICP, focal neurological signs, epilepsy

8

Meningiomas are typically fed by what artery?

External carotid artery

9

Preoperative tx of meningiomas

High-dose steroids for severe cerebral edema

10

What characterizes BENIGN brain tumors?

Do NOT invade underlying parenchyma

11

Classic feature of meningioma on plain radiograph

Hyperostosis of cranial vault

12

Tx of meningiomas

Total surgical excision, including obliteration of dural attachment

13

Meningioma recurrence after surgery

Rare if completely excised; most common source of recurrence is from tumor that invaded venous sinus which was not resected

14

Identify the lesion

Typical vault meningioma

15

Why is the term 'acoustic schwannoma' a misnomer?

Arises from vestibular component of CN8; should be called vestibular schwannoma

16

Presenting features of acoustic schwannoma

Tinnitus and unilateral partial or complete sensorineural hearing loss

17

What happens during Hallpike caloric testing (irrigate ear canal with cold water) in patient with acoustic schwannoma?

Nystagmus is depressed or absent on side of tumor

18

Surgical options for cerebellopontine approach in resection of acoustic schwannoma

Excision of labyrinth OR

Posterior fossa craniectomy OR

Middle cranial fossa approach

19

Complications of acoustic schwannoma excision

Hearing loss (esp. with translabyrinthine approach), facial paralysis if CN7 damaged, sensory abnormalities if CN5 damaged

20

Identify the lesion

Acoustic schwannoma at cerebellopontine angle

21

Identify the lesion

Bilateral acoustic schwannomas in NF-2

22

What genetic syndrome is associated with intracranial hemangioblastomas?

Von Hipple-Lindau's disease, though most patients with these tumors do not have the syndrome

23

Unique presenting feature of intracranial hemangioblastoma

Polycythemia 2/2 increased circulating erythropoietin

24

Typical location of intracranial hemangioblastoma

Cerebellum

25

Describe the location and features of colloid cysts

Cyst containing gelatinous material, situated in anterior part of 3rd ventricle; causes obstruction of foramina of Monro leading to hydrocephalus

26

Identify the lesion

Colloid cyst of 3rd ventricle

27

What are epidermoid and dermoid cysts? Where are they most commonly found intracranially? How do they appear histologically?

Epithelial cells embryologically displaced; found principally in arachnoid spaces, cisterns, or skull

Epidermoid cyst - desquamated epithelium with keratin-producing epithelium

Dermoid cyst - includes dermal elements (e.g. hair follicles, sebaceous glands)