Ch. 9: Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 9: Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations Deck (27):
1

Culture

A dynamic, multifaceted phenomenon that is influenced by many variables. Can be viewed as a framework through which actions are filtered as individuals go about the business of daily living. Includes the beliefs, behaviors, and values of a group of people. Values are at the heart.

2

Cultural Competence

A clinician who possesses this trait:
- Is actively in the process of becoming aware of his or her own assumptions
- Actively attempts to understand the worldview of his or her culturally diverse clients and families
- Is actively developing and practicing culturally relevant, sensitive, and appropriate service delivery skills and practices

3

Stereotypes

A means of categorizing others based upon perceptions that are incomplete.

4

Variables of Influence Upon an Individual

- Educational level
- Languages spoken
- Length of residence in an area
- Country of birth
- Urban vs. rural background
- Gender
- Religion
- Age
- Generational membership
- SES or upward class mobility
- Neighborhood and peer group
- Degree of acculturation into mainstream American life
- Outmarriage (marriage to people from different ethnic backgrounds)
- Individual choice within the intrapersonal realm

5

Bicultural

Refers to individuals who are fully involved in both their own and the host culture. They maintain their native language and become fluent in the new language, too. They maintain many of their own cultural practices and adopt the host culture’s practices as well. They are comfortable going back and forth between their own and the host culture.

6

Dialect

A rule-governed variation in a language used by a racial, ethnic, geographic, or socioeconomic group. May vary within a language by vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar; however, they are enough alike to be mutually understood by speakers of different dialects of the same language.

7

Hispanic

A label of convenience used to refer to people who reside in the United States but who were born in or trace the background of their families to one of the Spanish-speaking Latin American nations or to Spain or Portugal. May also come from Caribbean countries such as Puerto Rico and Cuba. Also used as an ethnic label by the Bureau of the Census.

8

Southeast Asia

The Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Burma, Vietnam, and Malaysia.

9

South Asia

Sri Lanka, Pakistan, India.

10

East Asia

Japan, Korea, and China.

11

Transference/Transfer

Refers to an error in a student’s L2 that is directly produced by the influence of L1. Can occur in all areas (syntax, morphology, phonology, pragmatics, and semantics).

12

Silent Period

A length of time where there is much listening and comprehension and little output by the child. It is believed that children are using this time to comprehend the new language before producing it. Can last 3 – 6 months.

13

Code-Switching

The alternating or switching between two languages at the word, phrase, or sentence level. This behavior is part of natural bilingual development and is used by normal bilingual speakers worldwide.

14

Language Loss

If the use of the L1 is discontinued or diminished, it is common for the second-language learner to lost skills in that first language.

15

BICS

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills. Type of language proficiency.

16

CALP

Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency. Type of language proficiency.

17

Simultaneous Bilingual Acquisition

Occurs when two languages are acquired simultaneously from infancy. Also called infancy bilinguality. This form of bilingual development closely parallel monolingual development.

18

Sequential Bilingual Acquisition

When one language is acquired after another. Great diversity of rates and stages among individuals.

19

Limited Bilingualism

Occurs when a child is not fully developing L1 or L2.

20

IDEA CLD Mandates

- All children, regardless of disability, are entitled to an appropriate and free education
- Testing and evaluation materials and procedures must be selected and administered so that they are not racially or culturally discriminatory
- Testing and evaluation materials must be provided and administered in the language or other mode of communication in which the child is most proficient
- Tests must be administered to a child with a motor, speech, hearing, visual, or other communication disability, or to a bilingual child, so as to reflect accurately the child’s ability in the area tester, rather than the child’s impaired communication skill or limited English-language skill
- Multicultural education is to be considered in guaranteeing equal educational opportunities for minorities with handicaps

21

Ecological Validity

Refers to the extent to which a test reflects the child’s actual, daily environment and life experience.

22

Incidence

Refers to the future occurrence of such an event in a population.

23

Prevalence

Refers to the current numbers of individuals.

24

Synergistic and Differential Recovery Theory

According to this theory, both languages are impaired, but not necessarily to the same degree. One language may be more affected than the other. Both languages may eventually recover but not necessarily at the same rate. By far the most common type of recovery. 95 – 98% of patients manifest this type of recovery.

25

Antagonistic Recovery Theory

According to this theory, one language returns at the expense of another previously recovered language. For example, a Spanish-speaking patient may recover Spanish and then English. However, when the English language returns, the Spanish language skills begin to disappear. Very rare.

26

Successive Recovery Theory

According to this theory, one language returns only after another has been completely restored. Very rare.

27

Selective Recovery Theory

According to this theory, one of the patient’s language never recovers and remains impaired. This occurs even when the other languages have recovered.