Flashcards in CH Midterm Simplified Deck (69)
Define what "Catholic Christianity" means. Who was the first person to use it?
1. Universal Christianity. Catholic Christianity represents more than an organization but a spiritual vision, conviction that all the Christians would be in one body
2. Ignatius was the first to use the term Catholic
Define the men who were called "apologists."
Apologists answered critics like Celsus and other opponents of Christianity. The word comes from Greek and means "defense" such as a lawyer gives at a trial.
Explain the Roman policy of religious tolerance. Why were the Jews an exception? How were the Christians eventually treated by Rome and why?
1. Rome’s policy: tolerant of other religions so long as they paid homage to Caesar
2. The Jews were monotheistic and would rather revolt and shed blood than acknowledge any other God. They were given a unique toleration.
3. The Christians were treated as Jews at first, but when the separation between Judaism and Christianity became obvious, Christians were persecuted. After all, they were even more active in proselytizing than the Jews.
The Christians didn't "follow the crowd" in many ways, refusing to participate in many social events. What are some events they rejected and why?
1. Denial of the Greek and Roman deities that they had for every aspect of life. They rejected the gods and didn't participate in their practices.
2. They didn't enter didn't attend or support the Gladiatorial entertainment because it promoted death and the participants may be Christians.
What excuse did Emperor Nero use to persecute the Christians? What was probably his motive?
1. He blamed the Christians for the fire that broke out in Rome that burned for six days and nights.
2. The rumor circulated that Nero himself caused the city to be set on fire. To turn hatred away from himself he accused the Christians for setting the fire.
The early Christian church was accused that their gatherings were full of sexual orgies and cannibalism. Explain where this idea might have come from.
1. Christians were accused of sexual sins. The charges come from the fact that one Christian meeting was called the Agape - the Love Feast - and from the custom of the "holy kiss" of peace the Christians gave to one another.
2. The charge of cannibalism probably started because the Lord's Supper was practiced in secret. The heathen did not know that happened in these closed meetings, but they heard that somebody was being eaten. (Jesus - this is my body and my blood)
Explain why Christians were being accused of Atheism.
The charge arose from the fact that many within the empire could not understand an imageless worship. Monotheism held no attraction for such people. As a result they blamed Christians for insulting the gods of the state.
What were the three fundamental reasons utilized as a rationale for the inclusion of a book in the canon?
1. A self-evidencing quality, exercising power on the lives of people who read them;
2. Because they were used frequently in Christian worship;
3. Apostolicity, written by an apostle or one who had known the apostles personally.
What were the two groups designated by Paul for leadership in the local churches he founded?
1. One group was called "elders" or "presbyters";
2. The other was known as "deacons."
By the late second century, who became the unchallenged leader in church affairs?
The most violent persecution that the church had yet faced in A.D 250 by Emperor Decius created what conflict in the Church? How did the Church attempt to resolve this?
key words: readmit, confessor, martyr, Cyprian, penance
o Due to many Christians denial of faith in order to live, when Decius was killed, they sought to be reemitted into the Church because "outside the church there is no salvation". The debate was whether the bishops had the power to forgive the sin of apostasy and allow those guilty to be again a part of the Church. Because Martyrs and confessors were greatly admired, some said that confessors had a special power from God. The Holy Spirit had ordained them extraordinary so that they had the power to absolve men of their sins. Cyprian, the Bishop of Carthage, confronted those who held that belief. However, in the favor of a system of readmission, a sacrifice was to be given depending on the degree of the sin. Therefore a graded system of penance was created. The proposal was only temporarily defeated and did not die. It reappeared years later in the Roman Catholic doctrine of the Treasury of Merit and the practice of indulgences.
What are the three levels of meaning in the Bible (according to Origen)?
1. The literal sense
2. The moral application to the soul
3. And the allegorical or spiritual sense, which refers to the mysteries of the Christian faith.
Describe the events leading to the conversion of Constantine. What convinced him of the “power of Christ and the superiority of the Christian religion”?
1. Anything including some of the following: The deterioration of the tetrarchy; the battle with Maxentius; battle Milvian bridge; fight for control of the Empire; etc.
2. In a dream he saw a cross in the sky and the words, "in this sign conquer". This convinced him to advance. When on 28 October 312 he achieved his brilliant victory over the troops of Maxentius, he looked upon his success as proof of the power of Christ and the superiority of the Christian religion.
For what reasons to some historians doubt the authenticity of Constantine’s conversion? For what reasons to others consider his conversion authentic?
1. Plenty of paganism remained. He conspired and he murdered. He even retained his title Pontifex Maximus as head of the state religious cult. He was only baptized on his deathbed. Etc.
2. Favored Christianity openly. Gave Christian ministers the same tax breaks as pagan priests. He abolished execution by crucifixion and punishment by gladiatorial games. He made Sunday a public holiday. He funded church buildings. He led a Christian family life. After his baptism, he refused to wear the imperial purple. Etc.
Though the advantages of a Christian emperor were real enough, what “price” did the Church pay? (I.e. what were the compromises that took place?)
1. Constantine ruled Christian bishops as he did his civil servants.
2. He demanded unconditional obedience to official pronouncements, even when they interfered with church matters.
3. The church was no longer composed primarily of convinced believers but many were politically ambitious, religiously disinterested and still half-rooted in paganism.
What did Emperor Theodosius do in 380 AD?
He made belief in Christianity a matter of imperial command.
Describe the beliefs of Arius concerning the Trinity.
1. The word (who assumed flesh in Jesus Christ) was not the true God. Jesus had an entirely different nature from God.
2. Jesus was not eternal or omnipotent. A created being.
Who was Athanasius and what had he contributed to the Council of Nicea?
1. Who (any of the following): Advisor to Alexander, opponent of Arius at the council. Became bishop of Alexandria.
2. Contribution (if few get it, let this be a free point): Victorious at the council of Nicea; defended orthodoxy (with “homoousios”)
Who were the Semi-Arians and what did they believe about Christ?
1. A moderate group, sometimes called the Semi-Arians, broke away from the strict Arians and attempted to give a new interpretation to the “one substance” statement.
2. They defended the use of homoios, meaning “similar,” to describe the Word’s relation to the Father …OR… The Semi-Arians, argued for homoiousios because they held that the Word was a being “like” God the Father.
Athanasius defined the relationship between the Father and the Son as homoousios. How is this different from the Semi-Arian designation homoiousios?
Homoousios = Jesus has the same substance as the Father; Homoiousios = Jesus has a similar substance to the Father (but different).
Name and describe the heresy condemned by the Council of Constantinople in 381 AD.
1. Apollinarianism, taught by Apollinarius.
2. The Word (the Son) inhabited a human body; but there was no human soul. Or Christ had one nature (divine/human).
Who was Nestorius and what was his view of Christ?
1. Preacher at Antioch then bishop of Constantinople.
2. Nestorius emphasized the humanity of Christ by a "conjunction" or merging of wills rather than that of an essential "union." OR emphasized the humanity of Christ too strongly. OR thought of Christ’s two natures more like two persons. OR anything like these.
Who was Eutyches and what was his view of Christ?
1. Spiritual leader of a monastery near Constantinople.
2. Monophysitism, which combined the divine and human natures together so that the human was absorbed into the divine.
“Christ in the Major Church Councils”: List the short summary statements provided by Shelley for the following major church councils:
1. Nicaea = Christ is fully divine
2. Constantinople = Christ is fully human
3. Ephesus = Christ is a unified person
4. Chalcedon = Christ is human and divine in one person
Who is regarded as the first monk?
How did Constantine’s conversion influence Christianity and why did this motivate some to become monks?
1. There was a decline in Christian commitment. The stalwart believers whom Diocletian killed were replaced by a mixed multitude of half-converted pagans. Once Christians had laid down their lives for the truth; now they slaughtered each other to secure the prizes of the church. = compromise / inauthenticity.
2. Monks tried to escape from compromise in the Church. “The hermit often fled, then, not so much from the world as from the world in the church.”
What did the monks protest and what danger did their protest cause?
“His protest of a corrupt institution led him into the dangers of a pronounced individualism. Against the great imperial institution, the channel of divine grace, the early monks set the life of the soul, face to face with God.”
What was the threefold vow of monks who aimed for the “imitation of Christ”?
(1) Poverty, (2) chastity and (3) obedience
Who provided the constitution for Western monasticism?
Benedict of Norsia
List some of the pros and cons of monasticism.
Up to the time of Constantine history offers no conclusive evidence that the bishop of Rome…
Exercised jurisdiction outside of Rome.
What does an Eastern Orthodox believer think about icons of Jesus and the saints?
As manifestations of the heavenly ideal, not the works of men.
What preconceived legend was shattered after the battle of Adrianople in 378 and what came as a result?
1. The battle of Adrianople destroyed the legend of the invincibility of the Roman legions
2. Ushered in a century and a half of chaos.
Why was it not very difficult to get the barbarians to nominally adhere to Christianity?
Because they wanted to enter the grandeur that was Rome. Christianity was, in their eyes, the Roman religion.
To whom can the conversion of the Irish be traced and when?
1. St. Patrick
2. Early in the fifth century
Who was Clovis, what led to his conversion and why is this significant?
1. First barbarian chief to convert to Christianity
2. Any of the following: His wife was Christian—a Burgundian princess who talked to him about God. His child fell ill after baptism and his wife’s prayers healed him. He prayed for help from the Christian God in battle and won.
3. He led his army and people to conversion/baptism. (Like another Constantine.)
How did the Franks picture Jesus? Who was their favorite apostle and why?
1. Jesus was a tribal war-god.
2. They particularly admired Saint Peter
3. Because his noblest exploit in their eyes was his eagerness to wield his sword to protect the Lord Jesus and to slice of f the ear of the high priest's servant.
Who was responsible for the evangelism of England and what event firmly established his success?
1. Augustine of Canterbury …OR… Benedictine monks. I’ll accept Columba, too.
2. King Ethelbert granted favor: land for a monastery. I’ll accept the conversion of Ethelbert or of English kings.
What title did Gregory give himself?
Servant of the servants of God.
What was Gregory’s teaching about baptism and sinning afterward?
God grants forgiving grace freely without any merit on man's part, but for sins committed after baptism man must make atonement by penance.
Simply a form of punishment inflicted by the man himself instead of by God.
In Gregory’s theology, what three “helps” does the Christian have?
1. The help of the saints
2. Holy relics
3. The Holy Eucharist
Describe Gregory’s view of the Eucharist and its power.
The Eucharist is a communion with Christ whose body and blood are really present in the bread and wine. Feeding upon them will nourish and strengthen our spiritual life.
The marvelous power of the Eucharist, however, lies in its sacrificial character.
What king restored the Christian Roman Empire, and what is the significance of this act?
1. Charles the Great, King of the Franks
2. It unified society, mingling religious and earthly concerns together.
What were the three goals Charles the Great had in mind upon succession of his father?
1. Military power to crush his enemies
2. Religious power to direct his people's souls
3. Intellectual power to instruct both soul and minds.
After Charlemagne’s coronation as emperor, describe how the pope needed the emperor and the emperor needed the pope.
The pope needed protection. Charlemagne needed divine sanction.
What is feudalism?
It is the type of government where political power was exercised by local individuals rather than by agents of the state.
What became the fate of the Church under feudalism?
The unsettled conditions caused by new invaders forced the church officials to enter into close relations with the only power able to offer them protection: the feudal barons in France and the kings in Germany. Bishops and abbots thus became vassals receiving fiefs for which they were obligated to provide the usual feudal service.
How did Pope Innocent and other great popes of the later 12th and 13th centuries view their offices?
They saw their office as a mediator between God and man, who "shall judge all and be judged by no one."
“The crusaders were fully aware of the spiritual rewards promised to them.” What was the primary spiritual reward?
Full forgiveness of their past sins
What were the three “primary purposes of the crusades”?
1. To win the Holy Land
2. To check the advance of Islam
3. To heal the schism between the Eastern and Western Churches.
What three things prepared the way for Christianity to take root and how so?
1. Judaism: it was spread throughout the Roman World (diaspora) brining with them Monotheism, Messianic Hope, Morality, Meeting Places, and Message (the Scriptures); it was rooted in Palestine; it was a legal religion (religiolicita).
2. Greek Culture: it was the universal language of the Roman World; its philosophy destroyed the pagan religions and offered morality, but offered no real answers or solutions for how to change behavior, and it promoted logic and sound reasoning used for theology.
3. The Roman Empire: its roads; its unified law over the empire; its conquest (army helped spread Christianity from converted soldiers)
What are the three NT Church dynamics that have proven to be difficult to balance?
We see throughout Church History a reaction to one of these three.
What was the structure of the NT Church leadership? (Also understand how the NT Church compares to the Church in other eras)
2. Interdependent (relationally)
3. Led by elderships (synonymous with bishops)
4. Guided by apostles
What was the structure of the Ante-Nicene Church leadership and how does it compare to the NT Church?
Changed from a relational unity to a hierarchical unity. Most churches had 3 offices at this time (elder, deacon, bishop). A distinction between bishops and elders forms during this time.
Different levels of bishops emerge (Monarchical, Diocesan, Archbishop, Patriarchs, Roman Primacy). Also the "priesthood" emerges.
What was the structure of the Ante-Nicene Church worship and how does it compare to the NT Church?
The NT Church had Sunday gatherings, small home gatherings (weekly), and large gatherings (less frequent). They greeted each other, shared a meal with communion, they read scripture, had teaching, sang, prayed, and exercised gift ministry.
The Ante-Nicene Church met in homes, sometimes had their own buildings (converted homes), or met at catacombs (cave graves). They held two separate services on Sunday, one in the morning with the catechumens and the baptized where they read scripture, heard a sermon from the bishop, prayed, and sang, then they had an evening service for the baptized only where they would greet each other, have a collection (oblation), partook of the eucharist (while singing hymns), and ate a meal together.
What motived the Romans to persecute Christians in the Ante-Nicene period?
1. It was seen as synonymous with Judaism (an already dislike though tolerated religion).
2. New religious ideas were not valued by the Romans.
3. Christians refused to worship the other gods.
4. Christianity was seen as a dangerous rebellious faction.
5. Christianity threatened certain social constructs.
6. Christianity became Rome's scapegoat.
7. Christianity and its customs were misunderstood
What were the main heretical diversions of the Ante-Nicene era? (define each) (first two most important)
1. Ebionism: they taught that Jesus was a mere man who by his scrupulous obedience to the Law was "justified" and became the Messiah.
2. Gnosticism: interpreting Jewish and Christian ideas through the filter of Greek philosophy and pagan religions (syncretism of Greek philosophy and Christianity)
3. Monarchianism: denial of trinity (monad)
4. Montanism: a second century separatist movement that abused the gift of prophecy and held an unorthodox eschatology
Why was there a decline in charismatic activity in the Ante-Nicene era?
1. Heresies that abused it
2. The over-structuring of the church
What marked the official end to Christian persecution in the Ante-Nicene period and what year did it take place?
The Edict of Milan in 313.
Was Constantine's conversion authentic? List the pros and cons.
Pros: vision of the cross, freed Christianity, raised a Christian family, oversaw doctrinal decisions, made Sunday a holiday, was baptized.
Cons: perhaps worshiped Christ as the Sun, continued in paganism, "Pontifex Maximus", conquered in the name of Christ, murdered, baptized before death by an Arian.
What three views were present at Nicea and what Greek word summarized their view?
1. Orthodox, Alexander and Athanasius, Homoousios (same)
2. Semi-Arian, Eusebius of Caesarea, Homoiousios (similar)
3. Arian, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Heteroousios (different)
What are the pros and cons of monasticism?
1. Preserved Christian text
2. Preserved the idea of holiness, being different from the world
3. Promoted discipline and work ethic
4. Intellectual contribution
5. Created a sense of community
6. Contributed to their society in big ways
7. Very effective evangelism
1. Created a "first class/second class" Christianity, dividing the Church
2. Promoted a works spirituality
3. Promoted wrong ideas (asceticism)
4. View of community was too exclusive
5. Promoted the gospel of Roman Catholicism
What are the types of monasticism?
1. Anchorite Monasticism: those who separated themselves as hermits, living in isolation in the wilderness
2. Cenobite Monasticism: communal monks who shared things in common, living together in an order
What led to papal primacy?
1. Apostolic succession: the teaching that the apostles passed on their authority to their successors led to the conclusion that Peter's supreme authority had been perpetuated in the bishops of Rome.
2. Martyrdom of Peter and Paul: with the rise of the veneration of martyred saints, Rome gained prestige as the site of the deaths of the two principal apostles.
3. Population of Rome: both the size of the city and the size of the church contributed to the authority of the bishop
4. Imperial capital: After the Edict of Milan, the emperors often sought advice on religious matters from the bishops of Rome
Political power exercised by private individuals instead of agents of a centralized state.
How did feudalism bring corruption to the church?
1. Bishops and abbots submitted to feudal lords
2. Lords appointed bishops --> invesiture controversy
3. Bishoprics were sought for power, property, and payment
4. Bishops became a "family trade"
What positive contributions did the Church give to feudalism?
1. Injected a sense of morality, civility, and stability (code of knights and "peace of God")
2. The Truce of God (closed time for fighting)