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Flashcards in Ch.'s 1 & 2 Deck (32)
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STEM research

experiments that test hypotheses science, technology, engineering, &/ mathematics


scientific method

an inquiry process used to systematically study, investigate, and provide explanations for observed phenomenon in the natural world



the measurements & observations that are collected as part of a research project

often a combo of measurements & descriptions


dependent variable

responding variable

what you measure in an experiment & what is affected during the experiment

responds to the independent variable; "depends" on it

can't have a dependent variable in a scientific experiment w/out an independent variable



the subject, specimen, or item that is studied as part of a STEM research proj



the test conducted as part of the sci method that includes a hypothesis, an independent variable, and dependent variables


independent variable

manipulated variable

the variable in an experiment that is purposely changed or manipulated, either in quantity or quality, by the researcher

usually what u may think will affect the dependent variable; In some cases, u may not be able to manipulate the independent variable - may be something that's already there & is fixed or something u would like to evaluate w/ respect to how it affects something else (Ex: how stress affects heart rate in humans


generating ideas

What do I want to learn?


Developing a research design

Determing variables to test and measure

identifying lab skills & lab resources


Knowing my topic

Background research on:

independent & dependent variables

entity being studied


writing the proposal

writing a hypothesis

performing pretrials

learning lab skills

scientific writing

addressing lab safety & ethical issues

determing best procedure


setting up and conducting the experiment

organzing the lab notebook

collecting data


statistical analysis

running statistics

putting data in tables & graphs

looking for patterns


interpreting the data

What do the data mean?

Accepting/rejecting the hypothesis

how might the results be important in this field and others?


report results

write a scientific research paper

design a poster or oral presentation


focusing a research project

What entity should I study → What could I manipulate or change? → What effects could I measure? → What skills, knowledge, and tools would I need? = possible research proj



considerations must be made when working w/ chemicals, mold & microorganisms, electricity, radiation, and vertebrate animals - including humans



the "norms of conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior"

main concern abt beginning researchers is that they aren't aware of the issues that may violate the "acceptable behavior" norm → nation regulations put in place to ensure that researchers have thoroughly thought through their experimental procedures, understand the safety & ethical issues, can justify their methods, & can ensure the humane treatment of the entities being studied



the factors within an experiment that are kept the same for all groups or trials in an attempt to reduce the influence of extraneous variables


control group

the group in an experiment that receives the exact treatment as the experimental groups except it doesn't receive any change of the independent variable

the group to which the experimental groups are compared

sometimes can only be designated after data r collected; also, for some experiments, no control group & comparison among experimental groups = enough


experimental groups

the groups or trials in an experiment that receive all the same conditions except varying amounts or qualities of the independent variable


extraneous variable

an "undesirable" variable in addition to the independent variable that may influence the results of an experiment, introducing error if it is not, as much as possible, cotnrolled or significantly decreased in the research design


focal sampling

a behavioral recording technique when a narrative (i.e., what is called an essay in English class) is written on every behavior of one individual or group for a set length of time



a tentative (i.e., not final and definite) and testable proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon

purpose is to connect the manipulated changes made by the independent variable with the effects on the measurements of the dependent variable

a) one variable is tested, (b) it is clear how the changes will be measured and, (c) it includes a prediction that will be either supported or rejected by conducting the experiment



a conclusion, based on facts, that a person perceives to be true



the complete collection of every item that has the same characteristics of the individuals in the sample group


qualitative data

data that describe characteristics or qualities, such as color, odor, or texture


data that describe category frequency or ratings, such as stem sturdiness (e.g., "sturdy," "somewhat sturdy," "limp").


quantitative data

data that use numbers with a unit of measurement, such as the length of an insect in millimeters (millimeter is the unit of measurement) or the weight of a projectile in kilograms (kilograms is the unit of measurement)



a subcollection of data that represent a larger population


scan sampling

a behavioral recording technique where behaviors that occur within a sequence are recorded in the order in whcih they occur


scan sampling

a behavioral recording technique where the activity of the indidvual or group is recorded only at preselected time intervals



the replication of experimental & control groups; used to decrease the influence of variations associated with the independent variable, researcher measurement error, and difference b/w entities studied