Ch.33 MD Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.33 MD Deck (23):
1

Which action will the nurse in the hypertension clinic take in order to obtain an accurate baseline blood pressure (BP) for a new patient?
a.
Deflate the BP cuff at a rate of 5 to 10 mm Hg per second.
b.
Have the patient sit in a chair with the feet flat on the floor.
c.
Assist the patient to the supine position for BP measurements.
d.
Obtain two BP readings in the dominant arm and average the results.

b.
Have the patient sit in a chair with the feet flat on the floor.

2

The nurse obtains the following information from a patient newly diagnosed with prehypertension. Which finding is most important to address with the patient?
a.
Low dietary fiber intake
b.
No regular aerobic exercise
c.
Weight 5 pounds above ideal weight
d.
Drinks a beer with dinner on most nights


B. No regular aerobic exercise

3

Which action should the nurse take when administering the initial dose of oral labetalol (Normodyne) to a patient with hypertension?
a.
Encourage the use of hard candy to prevent dry mouth.
b.
Instruct the patient to ask for help if heart palpitations occur.
c.
Ask the patient to request assistance when getting out of bed.
d.
Teach the patient that headaches may occur with this medication.

c.
Ask the patient to request assistance when getting out of bed.

4

After the nurse teaches the patient with stage 1 hypertension about diet modifications that should be implemented, which diet choice indicates that the teaching has been effective?
a.
The patient avoids eating nuts or nut butters.
b.
The patient restricts intake of chicken and fish.
c.
The patient has two cups of coffee in the morning.
d.
The patient has a glass of low-fat milk with each meal.

d.
The patient has a glass of low-fat milk with each meal.

5

A patient has just been diagnosed with hypertension and has been started on captopril (Capoten). Which information is important to include when teaching the patient about this medication?
a.
Check blood pressure (BP) in both arms before taking the medication.
b.
Increase fluid intake if dryness of the mouth is a problem.
c.
Include high-potassium foods such as bananas in the diet.
d.
Change position slowly to help prevent dizziness and falls.

d.
Change position slowly to help prevent dizziness and falls.

6

Propranolol (Inderal) is prescribed for a patient diagnosed with hypertension. The nurse should consult with the health care provider before giving this medication when the patient reveals a history of
a.
asthma.
b.
daily alcohol use.
c.
peptic ulcer disease.
d.
myocardial infarction (MI).

a.
asthma.

7

A 56-year-old patient who has no previous history of hypertension or other health problems suddenly develops a blood pressure (BP) of 198/110 mm Hg. After reconfirming the BP, it is appropriate for the nurse to tell the patient that
a.
a BP recheck should be scheduled in a few weeks.
b.
dietary sodium and fat content should be decreased.
c.
there is an immediate danger of a stroke and hospitalization will be required.
d.
diagnosis of a possible cause, treatment, and ongoing monitoring will be needed.

d.
diagnosis of a possible cause, treatment, and ongoing monitoring will be needed.

8

Which action will be included in the plan of care when the nurse is caring for a patient who is receiving nicardipine (Cardene) to treat a hypertensive emergency?
a.
Keep the patient NPO to prevent aspiration caused by nausea and possible vomiting.
b.
Organize nursing activities so that the patient has undisturbed sleep for 6 to 8 hours at night.
c.
Assist the patient up in the chair for meals to avoid complications associated with immobility.
d.
Use an automated noninvasive blood pressure machine to obtain frequent blood pressure (BP) measurements.

d.
Use an automated noninvasive blood pressure machine to obtain frequent blood pressure (BP) measurements.

9

The nurse has just finished teaching a hypertensive patient about the newly prescribed ramipril (Altace). Which patient statement indicates that more teaching is needed?
a.
“A little swelling around my lips and face is okay.”
b.
“The medication may not work as well if I take any aspirin.”
c.
“The doctor may order a blood potassium level occasionally.”
d.
“I will call the doctor if I notice that I have a frequent cough.”

a.
“A little swelling around my lips and face is okay.”

10

During change-of-shift report, the nurse obtains the following information about a hypertensive patient who received the first dose of nadolol (Corgard) during the previous shift. Which information indicates that the patient needs immediate intervention?
a.
The patient’s most recent blood pressure (BP) reading is 158/91 mm Hg.
b.
The patient’s pulse has dropped from 68 to 57 beats/minute.
c.
The patient has developed wheezes throughout the lung fields.
d.
The patient complains that the fingers and toes feel quite cold.

c.
The patient has developed wheezes throughout the lung fields.

11

An older patient has been diagnosed with possible white coat hypertension. Which action will the nurse plan to take next?
a.
Schedule the patient for regular blood pressure (BP) checks in the clinic.
b.
Instruct the patient about the need to decrease stress levels.
c.
Tell the patient how to self-monitor and record BPs at home.
d.
Inform the patient that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring will be needed.

c.
Tell the patient how to self-monitor and record BPs at home.

12

Which blood pressure (BP) finding by the nurse indicates that no changes in therapy are needed for a patient with stage 1 hypertension who has a history of diabetes mellitus?
a.
102/60 mm Hg
b.
128/76 mm Hg
c.
139/90 mm Hg
d.
136/82 mm Hg

b.
128/76 mm Hg

13

Which information should the nurse include when teaching a patient with newly diagnosed hypertension?
a.
Increasing physical activity will control blood pressure (BP) for most patients.
b.
Most patients are able to control BP through dietary changes.
c.
Annual BP checks are needed to monitor treatment effectiveness.
d.
Hypertension is usually asymptomatic until target organ damage occurs.

d.
Hypertension is usually asymptomatic until target organ damage occurs.

14

The nurse on the intermediate care unit received change-of-shift report on four patients with hypertension. Which patient should the nurse assess first?
a.
43-year-old with a (blood pressure (BP) of 160/92 who is complaining of chest pain
b.
52-year-old with a BP of 212/90 who has intermittent claudication
c.
50-year-old with a BP of 190/104 who has a creatinine of 1.7 mg/dL
d.
48-year-old with a BP of 172/98 whose urine shows microalbuminuria

a.
43-year-old with a (blood pressure (BP) of 160/92 who is complaining of chest pain

15

The nurse is reviewing the laboratory test results for a patient who has recently been diagnosed with hypertension. Which result is most important to communicate to the health care provider?
a.
Serum creatinine of 2.8 mg/dL
b.
Serum potassium of 4.5 mEq/L
c.
Serum hemoglobin of 14.7 g/dL
d.
Blood glucose level of 96 mg/dL

a.
Serum creatinine of 2.8 mg/dL

16

A patient with a history of hypertension treated with a diuretic and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor arrives in the emergency department complaining of a severe headache and nausea and has a blood pressure (BP) of 238/118 mm Hg. Which question should the nurse ask first?
a.
“Did you take any acetaminophen (Tylenol) today?”
b.
“Have you been consistently taking your medications?”
c.
“Have there been any recent stressful events in your life?”
d.
“Have you recently taken any antihistamine medications?”

b.
“Have you been consistently taking your medications?”

17

The nurse is assessing a patient who has been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a hypertensive emergency. Which finding is most important to report to the health care provider?
a.
Urine output over 8 hours is 250 mL less than the fluid intake.
b.
The patient cannot move the left arm and leg when asked to do so.
c.
Tremors are noted in the fingers when the patient extends the arms.
d.
The patient complains of a headache with pain at level 8/10 (0 to 10 scale).

b.
The patient cannot move the left arm and leg when asked to do so.

18

A patient with hypertension who has just started taking atenolol (Tenormin) returns to the health clinic after 2 weeks for a follow-up visit. The blood pressure (BP) is unchanged from the previous visit. Which action should the nurse take first?
a.
Inform the patient about the reasons for a possible change in drug dosage.
b.
Question the patient about whether the medication is actually being taken.
c.
Inform the patient that multiple drugs are often needed to treat hypertension.
d.
Question the patient regarding any lifestyle changes made to help control BP.

b.
Question the patient about whether the medication is actually being taken.

19

The registered nurse (RN) is caring for a patient with a hypertensive crisis who is receiving sodium nitroprusside (Nipride). Which nursing action can the nurse delegate to an experienced licensed practical/vocational nurse (LPN/LVN)?
a.
Titrate nitroprusside to decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 115 mm Hg.
b.
Evaluate effectiveness of nitroprusside therapy on blood pressure (BP).
c.
Set up the automatic blood pressure machine to take BP every 15 minutes.
d.
Assess the patient’s environment for adverse stimuli that might increase BP.

c.
Set up the automatic blood pressure machine to take BP every 15 minutes.

20

The charge nurse observes a new registered nurse (RN) doing discharge teaching for a patient with hypertension who has a new prescription for enalapril (Vasotec). The charge nurse will need to intervene if the new RN tells the patient to
a.
increase the dietary intake of high-potassium foods.
b.
make an appointment with the dietitian for teaching.
c.
check the blood pressure (BP) with a home BP monitor at least once a day.
d.
move slowly when moving from lying to sitting to standing.

a.
increase the dietary intake of high-potassium foods

21

Which assessment finding for a patient who is receiving IV furosemide (Lasix) to treat stage 2 hypertension is most important to report to the health care provider?
a.
Blood glucose level of 175 mg/dL
b.
Blood potassium level of 3.0 mEq/L
c.
Most recent blood pressure (BP) reading of 168/94 mm Hg
d.
Orthostatic systolic BP decrease of 12 mm Hg

b.
Blood potassium level of 3.0 mEq/L

22

Which nursing action should the nurse take first in order to assist a patient with newly diagnosed stage 1 hypertension in making needed dietary changes?
a.
Collect a detailed diet history.
b.
Provide a list of low-sodium foods.
c.
Help the patient make an appointment with a dietitian.
d.
Teach the patient about foods that are high in potassium.

a.
Collect a detailed diet history.

23

The nurse is caring for a 70-year-old who uses hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL) and enalapril (Norvasc), but whose self-monitored blood pressure (BP) continues to be elevated. Which patient information may indicate a need for a change?
a.
Patient takes a daily multivitamin tablet.
b.
Patient checks BP daily just after getting up.
c.
Patient drinks wine three to four times a week.
d.
Patient uses ibuprofen (Motrin) daily to treat osteoarthritis.

d.
Patient uses ibuprofen (Motrin) daily to treat osteoarthritis.