Ch.6 Memory Flashcards Preview

Psych 110 > Ch.6 Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.6 Memory Deck (47):
1

Encoding

The process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory. Part of information processing

2

Storage

The process of keeping and maintaining information and Memory. Part of information processing

3

Retrieval

The process of bringing tomorrow and information that has been stored in memory. Part of information processing

4

Memory

The process of encoding storage and retrieval of information

5

Sensory memory

The memory system that holds information from the senses for a period Ranging from only a fraction of a second to about two seconds

6

Eidetic

The ability to retain the image of a visual stimulus for several minutes after it has been removed from the view and to use this retained image to answer questions about the visual stimulus

7

Short-term memory

The component of the memory system that holds about seven items for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal. Also called working memory.

8

Displacement

The event that occurs when the short-term memory is filled to capacity in each new incoming Item pushes out an existing item which is then forgotten

9

Chunking

A memory strategy that involves grouping or organizing bits of information into larger units which are easier to remember

10

Rehearsal

Active purposely repeating information to maintain it in short-term memory

11

Working memory

The memory subsystem that we use when we try to understand information remember it or use it to solve a problem or communicate with someone

12

Maintenance rehearsal

Repeating information over and over again until it is no longer needed may eventually lead to storage of information and long-term memory

13

Elaborative rehearsal

A memory strategy that involves relating new information to something that is already known

14

Levels of processing model

The Maybry model that describes maintenance rehearsal as shallow processing and elaborative rehearsal as deep processing

15

Automaticity

The ability to recall information from long-term memory without effort

16

Long-term memory

The memory system with a virtually unlimited capacity that contains vast stores of a persons permanent or relatively permanent memories

17

Declarative memory

Subsystem with a long-term memory that stores facts information or personal life events that brought them on verbally or in form of images also called explicit memory

18

Episodic memory

The top of declarative memory that records events as they have been subjectively experienced

19

Semantic memory

Tapas declarative memory that stores general knowledge or objective facts of information

20

Non-declarative memory

The subsystem in long-term memory that stores motor skills habits and simple classically conditioned responses also called implicit memory

21

Recall

A memory task in which a person was produced required information the starting memory

22

Retrieval clue

Any stimulus a bit of information that I need to retrieving particular information from long-term memory

23

Recognition

And they were task in which a person must simply identify material as familiar as having been encountered before

24

Re Learning method

A measure of memory in which retention is expressed as a percentage of time saved with the material is relearn compared with the time required to learn the material originally

25

Serial position effect

The finding that for information learned in the sequence recall is better for the beginning and ending items then for the middle

26

Primacy effect

The tendency to recall the first Items in a sequence more readily than the middle Items

27

Recency effect

The tendency to recall the last items in a sequence more readily than those in the middle

28

Context effect

Tendency to encode elements of a physical setting in which information is learn along with memory of the information

29

Reconstruction

The account of an event that has been pieced together from a few highlights

30

Schemas

Frameworks of knowledge and assumptions that we have about people objects and events

31

Source memory

Re-collection of the circumstances in which you formed a memory

32

Source monitoring

Intentionally keeping track of the sources of incoming information

33

Flashbulb memories

Memories for shocking emotion provoking events that include information about the source

34

Autobiographical memories

We collections that a person includes in an account of the events of his or her own life

35

Positive bias

The tendency for Pleasant autobiographical memories to be more easily recalled an unpleasant ones

36

Expertise

Amount of background knowledge that is relevant to the reconstructive memory task

37

Forgetting

The inability to bring them on information that was previously remembered

38

Curve of forgetting

The pattern of forgetting discovered by ebbinghaus which shows that forgetting tapers off after a period of rapid information loss that immediately follows learning

39

Encoding failure

Because of forgetting that occurs when information was never put into long-term memory

40

Decay Theory

The oldest area forgetting which holds that memories if not used fade with time and ultimately disappear altogether

41

Interference

Because of forgetting that occurs because information or associations stored either before or after a given memory hinder the ability to remember it

42

Consolidation failure

Any disruption in the consolidation process that prevents a long-term memory from forming

43

Motivated forgetting

Forgetting through suppression or repression in an effort to protect oneself for material that is painful frightening or otherwise a pleasant

44

Prospective forgetting

Not remembering to carry out some intended action

45

Retrieval failure

Not remembering something one is certain of knowing

46

Tip of the tongue phenomenon

The experience of knowing that a particular piece of information has been learned that being unable to retrieve it

47

Information processing theory

A framework for studying memory that uses the computer as a model of human cognitive processes. (Mayer) 2012