Flashcards in Challenges Of An Urbanising World Deck (76):
Rise in percentage of people living in urban areas compared to rural
City with a population of more than ten million people
City with a population over a million
When 2 cities grow so much they merge together
Dominates its economic, financial and political systems, much higher population than next biggest.
City with a disproportionate influence in the world
Examples of mega cities
Jakarta, Delhi, Mumbai and Tokyo
Most populous city with 38 million
Features of a world city
International hub for travel and trade. Home to headquarters of many TNC’s which make global decisions. TNC’s invest. High employment in knowledge economy. High quality education attracting foreign students. Major political decisions.
Pull factors affecting urbanisation in developing countries
Job opportunities, less natural disasters, bright lights and entertainment, better services, better facilities (electricity and water), better wages, family
Push factors affecting urbanisation in developing countries
Shortage of land, population pressure, poverty, droughts, crop fail, natural disasters, no services, no sanitation
Result of slums / kampungs
Cramped conditions (worse QOL), poorly built housing (vulnerable to natural disasters), lack of sanitation (spread of disease)
Features of formal work
Contract, sick pay, maternity leave, minimum wage, taxes, structured working hours, suitable conditions, holiday pay
Features of informal work
No contract or pay if off work, direct pay of what you do, no minimum wage, no tax, flexible working hours, no working conditions laws, cash in hand
Why’s there a high level of informal work in developing countries?
Urbanisation results in limite numbers of formal jobs and so a competitive job market, lack of industrialisation means less formal jobs, lack of government funding into services, lack of education resulting in insufficient qualifications
Example of informal work
In Bamako, Mali there’s a lack of government funding into waste collection and so there’s much waste around the city lowering sanitation levels and biodiversity, poor earn livings by collecting trash and earning money to do this which is fed into the government, some trash is reused however and so is unsanitary
Which model demonstrates land use in cities?
Central business district
Where most commercial land is located (most expensive land, business base)
Streets are in grids and roads are tightly packed with terrace housing. (High density living spaces for workers in CBD)
Residential land with semidetached housing due to decreasing land prices
Rural urban fringe
Widely spaced roads and housing with more green belt areas and retail parks
The actual location of a settlement in relation to physical characteristics of the landscape.
Location of a place relative to its surroundings and other places.
Climate of Jakarta
Wet and tropical
Which Indonesian island is Jakarta located and where on it?
Northern coast of Java on java sea north of java mountains
Characteristics of land in Jakarta
Volcanic and fertile soil on lowlands that used to be swamps
River in Jakarta
Trades with Shanghai and Beijing with raw materials
Relation to rest of islands
Well connected by air and boat, on toll road along eastern Java
Why’s Jakarta considered a world city?
Development in MRT, upward social mobility in healthcare/education, many international and global headquarters, skilled young people, R&D apple innovative, cultural diversity
Population of Jakarta
10 million as of 2014
Cultures of Jakarta
Javanese, Malay, Chinese, Arab, Indian & European
Size of Jakarta
Population density of Jakarta
14,464 per km squared
Geographic space and how it’s used/ how things are spread across space
How has urbanisation affected spatial growth in Jakarta?
Increase in developed areas, eradication of wetland, decrease in open space/farmland, expansion outwardly
Percentage university educated in Jakarta compared to rest of country
14% compared to 1%
Why does spatial growth increase in Jakarta?
Urban primacy, rural urban migration, restructuring of Indonesian economy, following family & land issues
Domination of Jakarta due to being an economic, transport and commercial hub is attractive to rural citizens and puts pressure on surrounding areas to urbanise causing outward growth.
Rural urban migration
Push and pull factors attracting more migrants to Jakarta resulting in natural population increase.
Restructuring of Indonesian economy
Industrialisation widens city while shift of agrarian economy to manufacturing creates job opportunities while lessens importance of fertile land
CBD land value increase resulting of growth in suburbs due to kampung dwellers being forced outwards
Cycle of poverty
Low income= poor education= poor earning potential = poor education of children
Problems with growth of Jakarta
Limited housing and water supply, flooding and traffic
Urbanisations effect on housing and water supply
Lack of affordable housing for large influx of migrants results in kampungs, leads to crowding and lack of sanitation (no sewage system). This means that water borne diseases are spread and QOL lessens. These are eventually bulldozed pushing people outwards
Flooding in Jakarta
Influx of people leads to sinking of lowlands, near sea and has rainy season, poor are most vulnerable by river, waste in flood channels reduces water flow by 80%, dredging increases capacity, urbanisation results in increase of impermeable surfaces increasing surface runoff, poorly maintained drains, spreads disease and damages areas, tree loss due to urbanisation results in less interception of rain.
Congestion in Jakarta
6% of city is roads, long commute=low QOL, malnourished as less fresh food
Meeting the needs of the present without jeopardising the future.
Top down Sustainable solutions to Jakarta’s growth
Elevated road network, Ciliwung River normalisation programme, car free day
Elevated road network
Government led project to reduce traffic by building elevated roads. Although v expensive
Ciliwung River normalisation programme
Reduces risk of flooding while reducing waste in river and widening river. Access road to dredge rubbish decreases waterborne disease.
Although displaces people to outskirts while making city centre inaccessible,
Car free day
Reduces congestion and improves air quality by importing clean fuel and having one car free day a week
Although is hard to monitor and car numbers still growing.
Bottom up solutions to Jakarta’s growth
Sky juice charity, kampung improvement programme, mother & child health foundation
Sky juice charity
NGO Low maintenance water filter for kampungs drinking water
Although doesn’t tackle route cause
Kampung improvement programme
Self help scheme providing infrastructure & services for better QOL
Although doesn’t specifically improve housing
Mother & child health foundation
Provides meals, education and medical care for mother and child
Although not able to help all mothers
When suburbs grow outwards as new houses and services are built to accommodate more people
Causes of suburbanisation
Better QOL away from city, expensive CBD land prices, more MRT (mass rapid transport), higher housing demands, more safety
When people move from urban to rural areas
Causes of counter urbanisation
Pollution, congestion, crime rates, poor housing
When people move back to inner cities where populations had previously declined
Causes of reurbanisation
City workers & gentrification
Renovation of deteriorated urban neighbourhoods by the government or private companies, encouraging reurbanisation.
Manufacturing moving out of an area
Causes of de-industrialisation
Cheaper rural/ foreign land (global shift)
Results of de-industrialisation
Depopulation, decline in industrial zones, unemployment increase, lower QOL/ poverty
When birth rate is greater than death rate due to population producing offspring quicker than dying.
Emerging countries main sector
Developing countries main sector
Primary sector (agrian economy)
Developed countries main sector
Tertiary / quarternary
Factors affecting land use in cities
Accessibility, land prices, availability, planning regulations
Order of urban trends as you develop
Urbanisation, suburbanisation, counter-urbanisation, deindustrialisation & industrial relocation, urban decay, gentrification, reurbanisation
Example of urbanisation
Early 20th century
1970’s & 1980’s