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Flashcards in Challenges Of An Urbanising World Deck (76):
1

Urbanisation

Rise in percentage of people living in urban areas compared to rural

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Mega city

City with a population of more than ten million people

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Million city

City with a population over a million

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Conurbation

When 2 cities grow so much they merge together

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Primate city

Dominates its economic, financial and political systems, much higher population than next biggest.

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World city

City with a disproportionate influence in the world

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Examples of mega cities

Jakarta, Delhi, Mumbai and Tokyo

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Most populous city with 38 million

Tokyo

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Features of a world city

International hub for travel and trade. Home to headquarters of many TNC’s which make global decisions. TNC’s invest. High employment in knowledge economy. High quality education attracting foreign students. Major political decisions.

10

Pull factors affecting urbanisation in developing countries

Job opportunities, less natural disasters, bright lights and entertainment, better services, better facilities (electricity and water), better wages, family

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Push factors affecting urbanisation in developing countries

Shortage of land, population pressure, poverty, droughts, crop fail, natural disasters, no services, no sanitation

12

Result of slums / kampungs

Cramped conditions (worse QOL), poorly built housing (vulnerable to natural disasters), lack of sanitation (spread of disease)

13

Features of formal work

Contract, sick pay, maternity leave, minimum wage, taxes, structured working hours, suitable conditions, holiday pay

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Features of informal work

No contract or pay if off work, direct pay of what you do, no minimum wage, no tax, flexible working hours, no working conditions laws, cash in hand

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Why’s there a high level of informal work in developing countries?

Urbanisation results in limite numbers of formal jobs and so a competitive job market, lack of industrialisation means less formal jobs, lack of government funding into services, lack of education resulting in insufficient qualifications

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Example of informal work

In Bamako, Mali there’s a lack of government funding into waste collection and so there’s much waste around the city lowering sanitation levels and biodiversity, poor earn livings by collecting trash and earning money to do this which is fed into the government, some trash is reused however and so is unsanitary

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Which model demonstrates land use in cities?

Burgess model

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Central business district

Where most commercial land is located (most expensive land, business base)

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Inner city

Streets are in grids and roads are tightly packed with terrace housing. (High density living spaces for workers in CBD)

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Inner suburbs

Residential land with semidetached housing due to decreasing land prices

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Rural urban fringe

Widely spaced roads and housing with more green belt areas and retail parks

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Site

The actual location of a settlement in relation to physical characteristics of the landscape.

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Situation

Location of a place relative to its surroundings and other places.

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Climate of Jakarta

Wet and tropical

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Which Indonesian island is Jakarta located and where on it?

Northern coast of Java on java sea north of java mountains

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Characteristics of land in Jakarta

Volcanic and fertile soil on lowlands that used to be swamps

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River in Jakarta

Ciliwung

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Jakarta’s trading

Trades with Shanghai and Beijing with raw materials

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Relation to rest of islands

Well connected by air and boat, on toll road along eastern Java

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Why’s Jakarta considered a world city?

Development in MRT, upward social mobility in healthcare/education, many international and global headquarters, skilled young people, R&D apple innovative, cultural diversity

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Population of Jakarta

10 million as of 2014

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Cultures of Jakarta

Javanese, Malay, Chinese, Arab, Indian & European

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Size of Jakarta

660km squared

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Population density of Jakarta

14,464 per km squared

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Spatial

Geographic space and how it’s used/ how things are spread across space

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How has urbanisation affected spatial growth in Jakarta?

Increase in developed areas, eradication of wetland, decrease in open space/farmland, expansion outwardly

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Percentage university educated in Jakarta compared to rest of country

14% compared to 1%

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Why does spatial growth increase in Jakarta?

Urban primacy, rural urban migration, restructuring of Indonesian economy, following family & land issues

39

Urban primacy

Domination of Jakarta due to being an economic, transport and commercial hub is attractive to rural citizens and puts pressure on surrounding areas to urbanise causing outward growth.

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Rural urban migration

Push and pull factors attracting more migrants to Jakarta resulting in natural population increase.

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Restructuring of Indonesian economy

Industrialisation widens city while shift of agrarian economy to manufacturing creates job opportunities while lessens importance of fertile land

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Land issues

CBD land value increase resulting of growth in suburbs due to kampung dwellers being forced outwards

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Cycle of poverty

Low income= poor education= poor earning potential = poor education of children

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Problems with growth of Jakarta

Limited housing and water supply, flooding and traffic

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Urbanisations effect on housing and water supply

Lack of affordable housing for large influx of migrants results in kampungs, leads to crowding and lack of sanitation (no sewage system). This means that water borne diseases are spread and QOL lessens. These are eventually bulldozed pushing people outwards

46

Flooding in Jakarta

Influx of people leads to sinking of lowlands, near sea and has rainy season, poor are most vulnerable by river, waste in flood channels reduces water flow by 80%, dredging increases capacity, urbanisation results in increase of impermeable surfaces increasing surface runoff, poorly maintained drains, spreads disease and damages areas, tree loss due to urbanisation results in less interception of rain.

47

Congestion in Jakarta

6% of city is roads, long commute=low QOL, malnourished as less fresh food

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Sustainability

Meeting the needs of the present without jeopardising the future.

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Top down Sustainable solutions to Jakarta’s growth

Elevated road network, Ciliwung River normalisation programme, car free day

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Elevated road network

Government led project to reduce traffic by building elevated roads. Although v expensive

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Ciliwung River normalisation programme

Reduces risk of flooding while reducing waste in river and widening river. Access road to dredge rubbish decreases waterborne disease.
Although displaces people to outskirts while making city centre inaccessible,

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Car free day

Reduces congestion and improves air quality by importing clean fuel and having one car free day a week
Although is hard to monitor and car numbers still growing.

53

Bottom up solutions to Jakarta’s growth

Sky juice charity, kampung improvement programme, mother & child health foundation

54

Sky juice charity

NGO Low maintenance water filter for kampungs drinking water
Although doesn’t tackle route cause

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Kampung improvement programme

Self help scheme providing infrastructure & services for better QOL
Although doesn’t specifically improve housing

56

Mother & child health foundation

Provides meals, education and medical care for mother and child
Although not able to help all mothers

57

Suburbanisation

When suburbs grow outwards as new houses and services are built to accommodate more people

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Causes of suburbanisation

Better QOL away from city, expensive CBD land prices, more MRT (mass rapid transport), higher housing demands, more safety

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Counter urbanisation

When people move from urban to rural areas

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Causes of counter urbanisation

Pollution, congestion, crime rates, poor housing

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Reurbanisation

When people move back to inner cities where populations had previously declined

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Causes of reurbanisation

City workers & gentrification

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Gentrification

Renovation of deteriorated urban neighbourhoods by the government or private companies, encouraging reurbanisation.

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De-industrialisation

Manufacturing moving out of an area

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Causes of de-industrialisation

Cheaper rural/ foreign land (global shift)

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Results of de-industrialisation

Depopulation, decline in industrial zones, unemployment increase, lower QOL/ poverty

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Natural increase

When birth rate is greater than death rate due to population producing offspring quicker than dying.

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Emerging countries main sector

Secondary/ tertiary

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Developing countries main sector

Primary sector (agrian economy)

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Developed countries main sector

Tertiary / quarternary

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Factors affecting land use in cities

Accessibility, land prices, availability, planning regulations

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Order of urban trends as you develop

Urbanisation, suburbanisation, counter-urbanisation, deindustrialisation & industrial relocation, urban decay, gentrification, reurbanisation

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Example of urbanisation

Industrial revolution

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Suburbanisation example

Early 20th century

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Counter-urbanisation

1970’s & 1980’s

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Gentrification example

Peckham in recent years