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Flashcards in Champagne Deck (145):
1

What is Pinot Blanc Vrai?

True Pinot Blanc- a white form of PN

2

Who was the first person to figure out the right amount of sugar to add so the bottle wouldn't break?

Andre Francois

3

Best champagne vintages of the past 20 years

96,2002,2008,2012,2015

4

Major viticultural concerns in champagne/

Frost
Rain
Fungal Disease
Hail

5

What is 102/160

The CIVC set in 1992 a max of 102Lof must/160kg of grapes or 2550L/4000kg

4000kg is a marc of grapes or the amount held in a traditional basket press

6

Who assigns the matriculation number on a bottle of champagne?

CIVC

7

What is the only AOC/AOP that does NOT need to include the AOC/AOP on the label?

Champagne

8

Name 4 champagne houses owned by LVMH

Moet
Krug
Veuve
MErcier

9

Dosage Demi-Sec

32-50

10

What did the Commission de Chalon transform into?

the CIVC

11

When does phlox hit?

1890s

12

What is debourbage?

When the juice settles at a cool temp after pressing for 8-15 hours so that the remaining solids (bourses) in the must can be removed by racking prior to fermentation

13

What does the CIVC oversee?

Size of Harvest
Authorizes blocage and déblocage (the reserve and release of wine for future vintages)
Safegaurds the designation of Champagne

Until 1990 the CIVC oversaw the price of grapes through the echelle de crus which was a percentile system by which the villages or crus were rated

GC scored 100

1er crus 90-99

Crus are anything less than 90

A 1985 revision made the min 80%

Until 1990 a villages echelle rating was the most they could receive for fruit

After 1990 it was a suggestion

It was abolished in the year 2000

14

What is the Echelle de Crus

That ranking of 1er and CG villages

15

3 Rivers of champagne

The Aube
The Seine
The Marne River

16

What year was the importing of blue bagged Parisian garbage outlawed i champagne?

1998

17

What are DO major contributions to champagne?

Assemblage (blending) and viticulture

18

What ingredient is used to fire glass for champagne bottles now? Who invented it

Coal, the english in the late 17th C

19

What is a major climactic influencer for champagne?

The Atlantic

20

What did madame barbe-nicole ponsardin oversee the pioneering of?

Remuage (riddling)

21

Define CM

- Cooperative Manipulant A grower coop that produces wine under a single brand

22

What is Rose Riceys

100% rose from PN made in Les Riceys in the Aube

23

What do the shreds of blue plastic in champagne represent

They are left over scraps from imported compost bags showing the slow crawl towards organics/sustainable viticulture

24

What are the 4 permitted pruning methods in champagne?

Cordon de Royat
Chablis
Vallee de la Marne
Guyot (Double and simple)

25

How many villages may grow grapes for champagne?

357

26

What is one thing the champenois colored their wine with in order to compete with the wines of burgundy?

elderberry

27

Who was the weinfuhrer?

Nazi appointed agent who took up residence at the widow clique's estate

28

What year does champagne receive AOC/P

1936

29

who can claim to be the oldest sparkling champagne house? est. what year?

Ruinart 1729

30

What is the first 2050L of 2550L of juice called?

Vin de Cuvee

31

Define Regumage

Riddling- a procedure that easily allows sediment to be removed from the bottle during discouragement

32

How many villages are GC vs 1er cru in champagne?

17 vs 42

33

What is Micraster Chalk?

A second layer of chalk named from an extinct sea urchin characterizes the valley vineyards

34

Describe Belemnite Chalk

Very Pourous, its pushed tot he surface and retains heat to warm the vines at night, yet provides excellent drainage

It is derived from the remains of millions of fossilized cephalopods

35

What is Deblockage

Release of reserve wine controlled byCIVC

36

In what year did the French Gov. Delimit champagne?

1908

37

Dosage Brut

0-12

38

What is the Commission de Chalon?

A consortium of growers and merchants that formed to develop quality standards and regulate pricing

39

Name one exceptional champagne vintage pre 1920

1914

40

What is the mean annual temperature of champagne?

50F

41

What river cuts through the aube

The Aube river

42

What is Miller's Pinot and why is it called that?

Pinot Meunier- Named for the dusty appearance of its leaves

43

What covers much of the chalk in champagne

Thin layer of clay and sand

44

What was the first vintage of DP, what did it spark?

1921, the idea of the tete de cuvee

45

What happened in champagne in 1927

Aube is added back into champagne and the government further defines the region, production and vitiiculture

46

Define RM

Recoltant Manipulant- 95% must be estate grown

47

What is the oldest chapagne house still in operation, what year was it founded?

Gosset (1584) was established as a still wine producer

48

Define RC

Recoltant Cooperateur is a grower who's wines are made a coop but are bottled under his own label

49

After 1927, what was the next time the champagne appellation was extended?

2009 from 319 villagess to 357

50

What is a marc of grapes?

4000kg is a marc of grapes or the amount held in a traditional basket press

51

What precedes the matriculation number?

The initials of whom made the wine

52

What was the first vintage of DP?

1921

53

Describe the formation of the CIVC

Started by Robert-Jean de Vogue of Moet and Chandon win 1941, it was a broader consortium of growers, producers and shippers to protect the market in the face of the Nazis

54

What is the third pressing of juice after 2550L called?

Rebeche it is 1-10% - it is the legally required third press - it is used for distillation not for champagne

55

What does the Controls des Structures prohibit?

Any firm from farming more than fifteen owned or rented hectares

56

What are the three most planted grapes in order/

PN-38
PM-32
Chard-30

57

What is the prominent grape in the Aube and Montagne de reims?

Pinot Noir

58

What river cuts through the Cote de Seanne

The Seine River

59

What does the CIVC stand for?

Comite Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne

60

Define MA

Marque d'Acheteur- A buyers brand (ie. supermarket or Restaurant) that buys champagne and sells it under its own label

61

What is the dominant soil type of the Aube/

Clay

62

Name one cause of major devastation to champagne

WW1

63

Dosage Extra brut

0-6

64

Where was DP the cellar master at?

The Abbey of Hautvillers

65

Where did GC stand in the echelle de crus

100

66

What is the prominent grape of the Vallee de la marne

PM, more frost hits Vallee de la marne and PM tends to bud late and ripen early!

67

What year does the word Mousseux first appear and in what context?

1724, implied effervesence

68

Define Bouxvreux?

Rain that interrupts flowering and causes a second crop, that rarely ripes

69

Define SR

Society de Recoltants- a firm NOT a coop set up by a union of often related growers who share resources to make their wines and collectively market several brands

70

Premier crus in the echelle de crus

90-99

71

Who identified the relationship between sugar and fermentation. In what year?

1801, Jean-Antoine Chaptal

72

Who is madame barbe-nicole ponsardin?

The widow cliquot

73

What is the last 500L of 2550L of juice called?

Vin de Taille

74

Name three other authorized grapes in champagne

Pinot Blanc Vrai
Arbane
Pinot Gris
Petite Meslier

75

Dosage Extra Dry

12-17

76

What are the five districts in champagne?

Montagne de Reims- PN
Vallee de la marne-PM
Cote des Blancs-CH
Cote de Sezanne -CH
Cote de Bars (Aube)- PN

77

Who put the first brut champagne on the market/

Pommery "Nature" 1874

78

7 grapes of champagne

PN
PG
PB
Pinot Meunier
Petite Meslier
Arbane
Chardonnay

79

Dosage Sec

17-32

80

Define NM

Negociant Manipulant- A house the purchases grapes and/or base wine

81

What color may coteaux champenois be made in?

Red white or rose

82

Talk about champagne fraud

After Phylox hits people start labeling champ on wines sourced from all over france

83

Define ND

Negociant Distributeur- A middleman company that distributes champagne it did not make

84

Define Pointage

Shaking to bottle before remerge so that the lees doesn't stick

85

Dosage Brut Nature

0-3

86

When may tirage occur in champagne

Jan 1st

87

What is the tete de cuvee of Diebolt Vallois

Fluer Passion

88

DP's lasting contribution to champagne came from what techniques

Assemblage (blending) and viticulture

89

What is the oldest chMPgne house still in operation and what is now their tete de cuveee

Gosset (1584, but made mostly still wine)

Celebris

90

What is the oldest SPARKLING wine house in chapgne

Ruinart 1729

91

Barbe-Nicole Ponsardin is who and did what

Widow Cliquot- Pioneered riddling (remuage) which allowed the removal of sediment

92

Who put the first brut champagne on the market and what is now their tete

Pommery (1874)

Cuvee Louise

93

In what year was champagne region first delimited, when was the second ammendemnt to that

1908 (didn't include the Aube) then 1927

94

What year does champagne gain AOC

1936

95

What is the only region that does not need to include AOC/P on the label

Champagne

96

Best champagne vintage of the 20th C

1914

97

What year was the CIVC formed

1941

98

What year was the final appellation increase in chamapgne

2009, 319-357 villages

99

Define Bouvreaux

When rain interrupts flowering and creates a 2nd crop that rarely ripens

100

What is the major soul type of champagne

Belemite chalk with a high limestone content

subsoil of micraster chalk

101

First vintage of DP

1921

102

Mean avg temp of champagne

50F

103

What is the dominant soil type of the aube

Clay

104

Les Blues de Ville

The blue plastic remaining from the "Composting" of Champagne using paris trash that was OUTLAWED in 1998

105

Rankt the 3 most planted grapes in champagne

PN, PM, C

106

In what year did the CIVC se a limit on extraction pressing in chapagne and what was it

1992

102L of Must / 160kg Grapes
or
2550L/4000Kg

107

4000kg, is what?

A marc of grapes or the amount held by a tradition coquard basket press

108

4 pruning methods allowed in chamapge

Guyot (Double and single)
Cordon de Royat
Chablis
Vallee de la Marne

109

Prominent Grape in MdR

Pinot Noir

110

Prominent grape in the Aube

Pinot Noir

111

Prominent grape in the Cote de Sezanne

Chardonnay

112

Prominent grape in Vallee de la Marne and why?

PM- Vallee de la Marne is very frost prone

113

Define NM

Negociant Manipulant- Purchases grapes but may own their own vineyards (ie. Krug, DP, etc)

114

Define RM

Recoltant Manipulant- Growers who farm at least 95% of their grapes

115

Define CM

Cooperative Manipulant- A coop that produces wine under a single brand

116

Define RC

Recoltant Cooperateur- A grower whos grapes are vinified at a COop, but sells under his own label

117

Define SR

Societe Recoltant- A firm (NOT COOP) set up by a union of often related growers who share resources to make their wines and collectivly market several brands

118

Define ND

Negociant Distributeur- A middleman company that distributes champagne they did NOT make

119

Define MA

Marque d'Aucheteur- A buyers brand (ie. supermarket or restaurant) that purchases champagne and sells it under its own label

120

The first 2050L of press juice is known as what?

Vin de Cuvee

121

What is the last 500L of champagne called

Vin de taille

122

What is the third extraction in champagne known as

Rebeche, it is 1-10% of the press and is required by law. It is used for distillate NOT CHAMPAGNE

123

Prise de mousse is what?

The 2nd fermentation

124

What is a bidule

The plastic thing inside the crown top that helps colelect lees

125

How much alcohol is added with the 2nd ferementation?

1.2-1.3%

126

Min lees aging for NV champagne

12 mnths+3 months cellar for a total of 15

127

Define Pointage

Bottles are shaken to keep the lees from sticking to the side of the glass, however newer yeast strains make that less neccessary

128

What is a Muselet

The wire cage on a champagne cork, twisted 6 half turns

129

When is transvasage allowed in champagne production

Anything smalller then a 375ml or larger then a jero

130

Club Tresors - AKA

Special Club

131

What year was the special club founded

1971

132

What % of vintage champagne must come from stated vintage

100%

133

What is the max amount of a years harvest may be sold as Vintage champagne

80%

134

Where is les Riceys?

In the aube- Must be 100% PN for rose de Ricey

135

What color can Coteaux Champenois come in

All 3

136

What is the only french AOP that allows a rose to be produced by blending red and white wine

Champagne

137

What are the 7 AOP regions for cremant wines made in the traditional method

Cremant de:
Bordeaux
Bourgogne
Loire
Limous
Die
Jura
ALsace

138

Wines from Blanquette de Limoux AOP must be what

Traditional Method
Min 90% Mauzac, Chardonnay & Chenin

139

In Vouvray, Montlouis, Samur & Vin de Savoie wines must be made in what style and use what terminology

Traditional Method

Mousseux for fully sparkling
Pettillant for lightly sparkling

140

Name two itialn DOCGs for traditional method sparkling

Franciacorta
Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico

141

What is another name for Method Ancestrale

Method Rurale

142

Name three appelation that must make wine in the Ancestrale style

Bugey Cerdon
Clairette de Die Methode Doise Ancestrale
Gaillac Mosseux Mathode Gaillacoise

143

Asti wines are made in what style and have what legal min of tank aging?

Charmat- legal one month of tank aging

144

Where might you see the Continous Method/Russian Continuous method used?

German Sekt still uses it sometimes

145

What is the difference between tank and continuous

Continuous constantly is pumping over lees and adding dosage, more autolytic flavors are present