Flashcards in Chap 15 Deck (65):
major regions of the brain
cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum
three primary vesicles
Diencephalon(epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus)
Cerebral peduncles, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi.
Metencephalon (pons, cerebellum)
myelencephalon (medulla oblongata)
gray matter made up of:
neuron and interneuron cell bodies, dendrites, telodendria, and unmyelinated axons.
White matter is made up of:
Protection of the brain
blood brain barrier, cerebrospnal fluid, crainal meninges, and the cranium
pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater
stabilize the brains position:
falx cerrebri, tentorium cerebelli falx cerebelli and diaphragma sellae.
separates R and L cerebral hemispheres
separates occiptal and temporal lobes
separate left and right cerebellar hemispheres
forms a roof over the sella turcica.
lateral ventricle, third ventricle, fourth ventricle, and cerebral aqueduct.
provides bouyancy, protection and stable environment for the brain and spinal cord
*Made in the choroid plexus
enters the subarachnoid space from the ventricles and returns to the venous circulation through the arachnoid villi.
Blood brain barrier
regulates movement of materials between blood and interstitial fluid of the brain
area of sensory perception, thought, memory, judgement and voluntary motor actions
Cerebral hemispheres are separated by:
lobes of cerebrum:
frontal, parietal temporal occipital, and insula
directs voluntary movements,
concentration, communication, personality and decision making
collects somatic sensory information
hearing and smell
vision, storing visual memories
memory, and taste interpretation
primary motor cortex
inferolateral left frontal lobe
motor speech area
primary somatosensory cortex
primary visual cortex
primary auditory cortex
primary gustatory cortex (taste)
primary olfactory cortex
Central White Matter
deep to cerebral cortex gray matter-composed of myelinated axons
association tracts, commissural tracts, and projection tracts
connect different regions of cerebral cortex within the same hemisphere
(same side talk to different lobes)
extend between cerebral hemispheres
(R/L talk to each other)
link cerebral cortex to inferior brain regions and the spinal cord.
areas of gray matter deep within central white matter
putamen and globus pallidus
contributes to smoothness of complex motor actions
expanded region at tail of caudate nucleus
involved in emotions moods, control behavior
putamen and globus pallidus
located between insula and diencephalon
control muscular movement subconsciously
thin layer of neurons
processes visual information
processes and relay centers to integrate the sensory and motor pathways
includes thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
Posterior roof of diencephalon.
contains the pineal gland and habenular nuclei
melatonin secreting endocrine gland
relay signals from limbic system involved in emotional responses to odors
final relay point for integrating, assimilating, and amplifying sensory signals sent to the cerebral cortex
anteroinferior part of diencephalon
houses control and integrative centers, and oversees endocrine and autonomic nervous system functions
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
superior portion of the brainstem
contains cerebral peduncles, substantia nigra, tegmentum, tectal plate and nuclei for two cranial nerves
bulging region in anterior brainstem
involved in sound localization
connects the brain to the spinal cord. contains sensory processing centers, autonomic reflex centers and nucli for four cranial nerves.
helps maintain posture and balance,
divides L and R cerebellar hemispheres each with anterior and posterior lobe
midline between hemispheres
tree of life
white matter of cerebellum
thick tracts that connect the cerebellum with different parts of the brainstem.
collaborate to process/experience emotions.
located in longitudinal fissure of cerebral corex, brings events to consciousness
long term memory center
essential in storing memories and forming long term memory
connects to hippocampus involved in emotion, esp fear
connects odors emotions memories
thin tract that connects hippocampus with diencephalon