Chap 15 Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy Exam 3 > Chap 15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 15 Deck (65):
1

major regions of the brain

cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum

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direction:

anterior-toward nose
posterior-toward tail

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three primary vesicles

prosencephalon (forebrain),
mesencephalon (midbrain),
rhombencephalon,(hindbrain)

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Prosencephalon

telencephalon (cerebrum)
Diencephalon(epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus)

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Mesencephalon

Cerebral peduncles, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi.

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Rhombencephalon

Metencephalon (pons, cerebellum)
myelencephalon (medulla oblongata)

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gray matter made up of:

neuron and interneuron cell bodies, dendrites, telodendria, and unmyelinated axons.

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White matter is made up of:

mylinated axons

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Protection of the brain

blood brain barrier, cerebrospnal fluid, crainal meninges, and the cranium

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cranial meninges

pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater

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stabilize the brains position:

falx cerrebri, tentorium cerebelli falx cerebelli and diaphragma sellae.

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falx cerebri

largest
separates R and L cerebral hemispheres

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Tentorium cerebelli

separates occiptal and temporal lobes

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falx cerebelli

separate left and right cerebellar hemispheres

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diaphragma sellae

forms a roof over the sella turcica.

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Brain ventricles:

lateral ventricle, third ventricle, fourth ventricle, and cerebral aqueduct.

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Cerebrospinal fluid:

provides bouyancy, protection and stable environment for the brain and spinal cord

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CSF

*Made in the choroid plexus
enters the subarachnoid space from the ventricles and returns to the venous circulation through the arachnoid villi.

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Blood brain barrier

regulates movement of materials between blood and interstitial fluid of the brain

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cerebrum:

area of sensory perception, thought, memory, judgement and voluntary motor actions

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Cerebral hemispheres are separated by:

longitudinal fissure

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lobes of cerebrum:

frontal, parietal temporal occipital, and insula

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Frontal lobe:

directs voluntary movements,
concentration, communication, personality and decision making

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parietal lobe,

collects somatic sensory information

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Temporal lobe

hearing and smell

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occipital lobe

vision, storing visual memories

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insula

memory, and taste interpretation

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precentral gyrus

primary motor cortex

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inferolateral left frontal lobe

motor speech area

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postcentral gyrus

primary somatosensory cortex

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occipital lobe

primary visual cortex

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temporal lobe

primary auditory cortex

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insula

primary gustatory cortex (taste)

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temporal lobe

primary olfactory cortex

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Central White Matter

deep to cerebral cortex gray matter-composed of myelinated axons
association tracts, commissural tracts, and projection tracts

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association tracts

connect different regions of cerebral cortex within the same hemisphere
(same side talk to different lobes)

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commissural tracts

extend between cerebral hemispheres
(R/L talk to each other)

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Projection tracts

link cerebral cortex to inferior brain regions and the spinal cord.

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Cerebral nuclei

areas of gray matter deep within central white matter
caudate nucleus
amygdaloid body
putamen and globus pallidus
Claustrum

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Caudate nucleus

C shaped
contributes to smoothness of complex motor actions

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Amygdaloid body

expanded region at tail of caudate nucleus
involved in emotions moods, control behavior

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putamen and globus pallidus

located between insula and diencephalon
control muscular movement subconsciously

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claustrum

thin layer of neurons
processes visual information

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diencephalon:

processes and relay centers to integrate the sensory and motor pathways
includes thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

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epithalamus

Posterior roof of diencephalon.
contains the pineal gland and habenular nuclei

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pineal gland

melatonin secreting endocrine gland

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habenular nuclei

relay signals from limbic system involved in emotional responses to odors

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thalamus

final relay point for integrating, assimilating, and amplifying sensory signals sent to the cerebral cortex

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hypothalamus

anteroinferior part of diencephalon
houses control and integrative centers, and oversees endocrine and autonomic nervous system functions

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brainstem

midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

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midbrain:

superior portion of the brainstem
contains cerebral peduncles, substantia nigra, tegmentum, tectal plate and nuclei for two cranial nerves

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Pons

bulging region in anterior brainstem
involved in sound localization

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medulla oblongata

connects the brain to the spinal cord. contains sensory processing centers, autonomic reflex centers and nucli for four cranial nerves.

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cerebellum

helps maintain posture and balance,
divides L and R cerebellar hemispheres each with anterior and posterior lobe

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vermis

midline between hemispheres

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arbor vitae

tree of life
white matter of cerebellum

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cerebellar peuncles

thick tracts that connect the cerebellum with different parts of the brainstem.

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limbic system:

collaborate to process/experience emotions.

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cingulate gyrus

located in longitudinal fissure of cerebral corex, brings events to consciousness

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parahippocampal gyrus

long term memory center

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hippocampus

essential in storing memories and forming long term memory

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amygdaloid body

connects to hippocampus involved in emotion, esp fear

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olfactory system

connects odors emotions memories

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fornix

thin tract that connects hippocampus with diencephalon

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diencephalon

multiple nuclei and mammillary bodies contribute via many connections