Flashcards in Chap 2 - chemistry Deck (39):
Energy that is stored in bonds of chemical substances.
Energy that results from the movement of charged particles
Energy that is directly involved in moving matter.
Energy that travels in waves
A unique substance that constitutes the building blocks of matter and thy cannot be broken down I to simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods.
How does Calcium (Ca) function in the body?
Found as a salt in bones and teeth
How does Potassium (K) function in the body?
The major intracellular cation.
Essential for the conduction of nerve impulses and for muscle contraction.
How does Sodium (Na) function in the body?
The major extracellular cation.
Important for water balance, conduction of nerve impulses, and muscle contraction
How does Iodine (I) function in the body?
Needed to make functional thyroid hormones
How does Iron (Fe) function in the body?
A component of the hemoglobin molecule that is necessary for oxygen transport in red blood cells.
Atomic mass number
Number of neutrons + protons of an atom.
This number is indicated on the periodic table below the symbol for each element.
Number of protons (electrons) in an atom.
have the same number of protons and electrons, but differ in the number if neutrons they contain.
Same atomic number but different atomic masses
Heavier isotopes decompose to become more stable. This process of spontaneous atomic decay is radioactivity.
Radioactive decay involved the ejection of particles or energy from the atoms nucleus and are damaging to living cells.
Why are radioisotopes used in medicine?
Used in minute amounts to tag biological molecules so they can be followed through the body for medical diagnosis and treatment.
Identify inert gases and explain their significance.
Group VIIIA contains inert gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
All the elements in this group have atoms whose outermost shells are filled, making them all inert, chemically unreactive, or stable
An atom whose outermost shell contains the maximum number of electrons it can hold
Av atom whose outermost shell does not contain the maximum number of electrons it can hold.
All atoms, except group VIIIA, are unstable!
Electron transfer; the forces of attraction between ions in the compound are called ionic bonds and compounds are called electrovalent or ionic compounds.
A positively charged ion
A negatively charged ion
Electrons do not have to be completely lost or gained to become stable. They share in such a way that their valence shell is filled at lest part of the time.
Two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger more complex molecule
Growth, repair of worn out or damaged tissues, formation of protein by joining of amino acids into long chains
A molecules broken down into smaller molecules, atoms or ions
Digestion of foods into their building blocks, the breakdown of glycogen to release glucose when blood sugar levels start to decline
Involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions. A switches made bewt molecule parts and different molecules are made.
Occurs when ATP reacts with glucose and transfers it's end phosphate group to glucose, forming glucose-phosphate. At the same time, the ATP becomes ADP.
Compound that contains carbon-hydrogen bonding
Carbs, lipids, protein, nucleic acid
Compounds that do not contain carbon-hydrogen bonding
Water, salts, and many acids and bases
Properties of water
High heat capacity
Hydrolysis reactions - water is added to bonds of larger molecules
Base for all body lubricants
Substances that conduct an electrical current in solution (because they contain ions)
Acids, bases, and salts- any compound formed in electron transfer reactions
Substances that do not conduct an electrical current in solution (because they do not contain ions)
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids -any compounds formed in electron sharing reactions
Release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. pH 0-6.9
Strong acid- acids that ionize completely, producing large quantities of hydrogen ions. pH 0-5
Weak acid- acids that ionize incompletely, producing limited numbers of hydrogen ions. pH 5.1-6.9
Accept hydrogen ions when dissolved in water; often release hydroxyl ions when dissolved. pH 7.1-14
Strong bases - releases the OH or hydroxyl ion when dissolved in water. pH 9-14
Weak bases- do not contain the OH or hydroxyl ion but produce a limited seeker of hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water. pH 7.1-8.9
Produce ions other than hydrogen or hydroxyl when dissolved in water
Contain C, H, and O. And the ration of H:O is 2:1
Monosaccharides and the building blocks
They provide energy
Monosaccharides > disaccharides > polysaccharides
Contain C, H, and O but the ratio of H:O is much greater than 2:1
Triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids
Contain C, H, and O, N and sometimes S
Amino acids (monomers) are building blocks
To build tissue and to act as enzymes
Fibrous proteins and globular proteins
Nucleic acids (polymers)
Contains C, O, H, N, and P
Makes up hereditary material and it's responsible for protein synthesis
DNA and RNA
A more complex molecule is formed from two simpler ones and a water molecule is lost as each bond forms.
When a polysaccharide is formed from several monosaccharides