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Flashcards in Chap 2 - chemistry Deck (39):
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Chemical Energy

Energy that is stored in bonds of chemical substances.

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Electrical Energy

Energy that results from the movement of charged particles

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Mechanical Energy

Energy that is directly involved in moving matter.

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Radiant energy

Energy that travels in waves

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Element

A unique substance that constitutes the building blocks of matter and thy cannot be broken down I to simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods.

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How does Calcium (Ca) function in the body?

Found as a salt in bones and teeth

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How does Potassium (K) function in the body?

The major intracellular cation.

Essential for the conduction of nerve impulses and for muscle contraction.

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How does Sodium (Na) function in the body?

The major extracellular cation.

Important for water balance, conduction of nerve impulses, and muscle contraction

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How does Iodine (I) function in the body?

Needed to make functional thyroid hormones

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How does Iron (Fe) function in the body?

A component of the hemoglobin molecule that is necessary for oxygen transport in red blood cells.

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Atomic mass number

Number of neutrons + protons of an atom.

This number is indicated on the periodic table below the symbol for each element.

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Atomic Number

Number of protons (electrons) in an atom.

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Isotope

have the same number of protons and electrons, but differ in the number if neutrons they contain.

Same atomic number but different atomic masses

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Radioisotopes

Heavier isotopes decompose to become more stable. This process of spontaneous atomic decay is radioactivity.

Radioactive decay involved the ejection of particles or energy from the atoms nucleus and are damaging to living cells.

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Why are radioisotopes used in medicine?

Used in minute amounts to tag biological molecules so they can be followed through the body for medical diagnosis and treatment.

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Identify inert gases and explain their significance.

Group VIIIA contains inert gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

All the elements in this group have atoms whose outermost shells are filled, making them all inert, chemically unreactive, or stable

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Stable atom

An atom whose outermost shell contains the maximum number of electrons it can hold

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Unstable atom

Av atom whose outermost shell does not contain the maximum number of electrons it can hold.

All atoms, except group VIIIA, are unstable!

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Ionization

Electron transfer; the forces of attraction between ions in the compound are called ionic bonds and compounds are called electrovalent or ionic compounds.

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Cation

A positively charged ion

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Anion

A negatively charged ion

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Covalent reactions

Electrons do not have to be completely lost or gained to become stable. They share in such a way that their valence shell is filled at lest part of the time.

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Synthesis

Two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger more complex molecule

Growth, repair of worn out or damaged tissues, formation of protein by joining of amino acids into long chains

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Decomposition

A molecules broken down into smaller molecules, atoms or ions

Digestion of foods into their building blocks, the breakdown of glycogen to release glucose when blood sugar levels start to decline

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Exchange

Involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions. A switches made bewt molecule parts and different molecules are made.

Occurs when ATP reacts with glucose and transfers it's end phosphate group to glucose, forming glucose-phosphate. At the same time, the ATP becomes ADP.

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Organic compound

Compound that contains carbon-hydrogen bonding

Carbs, lipids, protein, nucleic acid

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Inorganic compound

Compounds that do not contain carbon-hydrogen bonding

Water, salts, and many acids and bases

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Properties of water

High heat capacity
Excellent solvent
Hydrolysis reactions - water is added to bonds of larger molecules
Protective function
Base for all body lubricants

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Electrolyte

Substances that conduct an electrical current in solution (because they contain ions)

Acids, bases, and salts- any compound formed in electron transfer reactions

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Non-electrolytes

Substances that do not conduct an electrical current in solution (because they do not contain ions)

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids -any compounds formed in electron sharing reactions

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Acid

Release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. pH 0-6.9

Strong acid- acids that ionize completely, producing large quantities of hydrogen ions. pH 0-5

Weak acid- acids that ionize incompletely, producing limited numbers of hydrogen ions. pH 5.1-6.9

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Bases

Accept hydrogen ions when dissolved in water; often release hydroxyl ions when dissolved. pH 7.1-14

Strong bases - releases the OH or hydroxyl ion when dissolved in water. pH 9-14

Weak bases- do not contain the OH or hydroxyl ion but produce a limited seeker of hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water. pH 7.1-8.9

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Salts

Produce ions other than hydrogen or hydroxyl when dissolved in water

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Carbohydrates (polymers)

Organic compound

Contain C, H, and O. And the ration of H:O is 2:1

Monosaccharides and the building blocks

They provide energy

Monosaccharides > disaccharides > polysaccharides

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Lipids

Contain C, H, and O but the ratio of H:O is much greater than 2:1

Triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids

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Proteins (polymers)

Contain C, H, and O, N and sometimes S

Amino acids (monomers) are building blocks

To build tissue and to act as enzymes

Fibrous proteins and globular proteins

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Nucleic acids (polymers)

Contains C, O, H, N, and P

Nucleotides (monomer)

Makes up hereditary material and it's responsible for protein synthesis

DNA and RNA

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Dehydration synthesis

A more complex molecule is formed from two simpler ones and a water molecule is lost as each bond forms.

When a polysaccharide is formed from several monosaccharides

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Hydrolysis

Breakdown of a more complex molecule into its building blocks; a water molecule is added to each bond, the bond is broken and simpler molecules are formed.

In the process water is split into an H and an OH