Flashcards in Chapter 1-4 Neuropsychology: past, present, and future methods! Deck (39):
What was classical neuropsychology before 1914 based upon?
It was based upon patients
who had suffered cerebrovascular accidents (and patients with progressive or degenerative conditions, including neurosyphilis).
How did the neuropsychological research and assessment change after 1914?
Due to the wars, neurologists were now also dealing with the behavioural sequelae of focal lesions caused by high-velocity projectile injury to the brains of young, previously healthy men (and, more rarely, women).
What gained interest in neuropsychology as a consequence of young men suffering severe focal lesions?
Cognitive rehabilitation due to patients often surviving 30-50 years following the injury.
What tool in neuropsychology was developed during the period 1914-1956?
The standardized test was developed and introduced, assessing language, memory, praxis, and
Did anything worth noting happen with the field of psychology during the period 1914-1956?
YES! Clinical neuropsychology as a field emerged.
Medical doctors weren't as skilled in assessing and treating the whole person following traumatic brain injury.
What is cognitive neuropsychology?
The distinctive character of cognitive neuropsychology lies in the explicit endeavour to interpret disorders of cognition in relation to formal information processing models of normal (brain/mind) systems.
What is the objective of assessment?
Neuropsychological assessment is concerned with identifying the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural consequences of brain dysfunction.
Is there evidence of organic brain dysfunction?
What a fucking stupid question asked by the book. The answer is yes btw.
What is most important in a neuropsychological assessment?
Practical or functional consequences of cognitive impairment?
Haha, trick question. Both are equally important.
How do you assess functional consequences of cognitive impairment?
Standardized tests, test batteries etc.
How do you assess practical consequences of cognitive impairment?
Typically surveys either specific for the person or caregivers, partners, teachers or otherwise qualified individuals that know and knew the patient prior to injury.
Is the following statement true or not?
Neuropsychological assessment is used in forming an opinion regarding a person’s capacity to manage his or her affairs, particularly financial affairs, or consent to treatment.
Mega true. Like so true. Couldn't be more true. I know more than the experts. For real. It's true.
- Donald Trump.
What are the implications of the pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses for the rehabilitation process?
It doesn't really matter if you're capable of performing well on WISC, WAIS or other standardized tests if you can't tie your shoes, boil an egg or open the fridge. If you catch my drift.
Can mood and behaviour be affected by medication, neurosurgery and/or traumatic brain injuries?
Combined stupid questions from the book. yes. yes. YES! YEEEEEEEEES! Trillion times yes. Shit's affected, yo.
What is the most beloved assessment tool in the neuropsychologists tool box?
The glorious standardized test!
What is important to be aware of when assessing patients with standardized tests?
Motivation and Effort
Malingering! (Motivation by hopes of secondary gain)
Name the three steps of the assessment proces.
1. Review of material from the referrer
2. Interview of patient, relatives or any other relevant parties (boss, teacher etc.)
3. Administration of standardized tests
Name at least two important factors related to standardized tests.
1. Whether to use "big battery tests" or specialized tests.
2. Awareness od the normative data.
Premorbid function is..
The patient's functioning prior to brain injury.
Name some important considerations regarding premorbid function.
Does the premorbid functioning resemble that of a normative population? (Low IQ beforehand most likely won't increase following an injury).
It's necessary to do a thorough background check of the patient: Demographically, education-wise etc.
What is psychometrics?
Psychometrics is a specific domain of measurement in psychology concerned with the assignment of numerals to one (or several) property/ies of objects or events according to fixed rules.
What are tests measuring optimal performance called?
Aptitude, achievement or proficiency tests.
Name at least 4 out of 7 characteristics of psychometric testing.
◆ Unlike physical attributes, psychological attributes of a person cannot be measured directly.
◆ Psychological attributes are constructs or hypothetical concepts the existence of which can never be confirmed in an absolute way nor is there universal acceptance how to measure any construct.
◆ The degree or extent to which some psychological construct is characteristic of a person can only be inferred from limited samples of that person’s behaviour.
◆ Before any measurement of a construct can be made, one has to establish an operational definition (i.e. a rule of correspondence between the theoretical construct and observable behaviours that may be considered indicators of the construct).
◆ Any measurement obtained is always subject to error.
◆ The units of measurement on the measurement scales are not well- defined per se.
◆ The measurements on one construct must also have demonstrated relationships to other constructs within a theoretical system.
Name four neurological factors affecting the rehabilitative outcome.
◆ Location, Type, and Extent of Lesion
◆ Secondary Effects (e.g., edema, increased intracranial pressure, hematoma)
◆ Coma Severity and Duration
◆ Post-Traumatic Amnesia Duration
Name at least 4 out of 7 neuropsychological functioning factors affecting the rehabilitative outcome.
◆ Language Functioning
◆ Visual-Spatial Skills
◆ Motor Skills
◆ Problem-Solving/Mental Flexibility
◆ Information Processing Speed
Name the four psychosocial factors affecting the rehabilitative outcome.
◆ Awareness of Deficit
◆ Coping Style
◆ Anxiety and Depression Background
Name at least 5 relevant factors in the background history of the patient that could affect the rehabilitative outcome.
◆ Premorbid Level of Functioning
◆ Social Supports
◆ Financial Supports
Name advantages and disadvantages in group approaches to rehabilitation.
- Not very specifically tailored
+ Offers Peer support
Name advantages and disadvantages in individual approaches to rehabilitation.
+ Specifically tailored
- Peer support
Name the two approaches to rehabilitation.
1) Cognitive Retraining
2) Compensatory strategies
Define cognitive retraining.
Retraining programs usually involve repeated practice of specific cognitive exercises designed to strengthen basic skills (e.g., attention, encoding) that are essential for more complex cognitive function.
Define compensatory strategies.
Compensatory approaches are based on the principle that individuals can offset reduced cognitive abilities by utilizing different ways of performing a task.
There exists three types of compensatory strategies. Name them!
1) Internal strategies
2) External strategies
3) Domain-specific techniques
Give at least three examples of internal strategies.
1) Face-name strategy in which one identifies a salient facial feature.
2) The familiar method-of- loci, in which a visual image is associated with each of a series of locations or items on a list.
3) Spaced retrieval techniques to train prospective memory–the ability to remember to do things in the future.
4) Verbal mediators such as forming
semantically meaningful associates or easily connected rhymes of material to be remembered
5) Self-instruction, wherein one talks his/her way through an activity in order to maintain appropriate attention
6) ‘Goal Management Training’, designed to reduce executive impairments related to frontal lobe damage. This is a manual-based protocol for helping patients organize their behaviour and execute tasks in a goal-directed manner.
Give at least two examples of external strategies.
1) Physical remedies like a map, a checklist, alarms etc.
2) Verbal feedback
3) Response costs (e.g. monetary loss when forgetting)
Which of the following cities has never been the capital of Denmark?
Randers :'( og Århus.
Of notable characters, who's going to attend this years Tonder Festival?
Seb & Pete
Name and explain two domain-specific techniques.
1) Method of vanishing cues.
- memory- impaired people are provided with
enough cues to allow successful performance, and
as learning occurs, cues are gradually withdrawn.
2) The errorless learning procedure.
- minimizing the possibility of errors.