Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

CSCS Prep > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (95):
1

Axial Skeleton (4)

skull (cranium)
vertebral column ( C1 thru coccyx
ribs
sternum

2

Apendicular Skeleton (4)

1. shoulder ( or pectoral) girdle (L and R scapula and clavicle)
2. bones of the arms wrists, and hands (L and R humerus, radius, ulna, carpels, metacarpals, and phalanges)
3. pelvic girdle (L and R coxal or innominate bones)
4. bone of the legs, ankles, and feet (L and R femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges

3

Joints

Junctions of bones

4

Fibrous Joints

allow virtually no movement
e.g sutures of the skull

5

Cartilaginous Joints

allow limited movement
e.g. intervertebral disks

6

Synovial Joints

allow considerable movement
e.g. elbows and knees

most sport and exercise movements occur at these joints b/c of low friction and large range of motion.

7

Articulating bone ends are covered with smooth _____ _______? The entire joint is enclosed in a capsule filled with ______ ______?

Hyaline cartilage.
Synovial Fluid.

8

Virtually all joint movement consists of rotation about _____ or ______?

point; axes

9

Depending on the number of directions about which rotation occurs, how are joints categorized?

Uniaxial Joints
Biaxial Joints
Multiaxial Joints

10

Uniaxial Joints

operate as hinge, essentially rotating about only one axis e.g. elbow and knee

11

Biaxial Joints

allow movement about two perpendicular axes
e.g. ankle and wrist

12

Multiaxial Joints

allow movement about all three perpendicular axes that define space
e.g. shoulder and hip ball-and-socket joints

13

Vertebral Column and it's components

made up of vertebral bones separated by flexible disks that allow movement to occur.

7 cervical vertebrae ( neck)
12 thoracic vertebrae (upper-middle back)
5 lumbar vertebrae (middle-low back)
5 sacral vertebrae (rear part of pelvis)
3-5 coccygeal vertebrae (vestigial internal tail extending downward from pelvis

14

Epimysium

connective, fibrous tissue sheath surrounding skeletal muscle. Contiguous with the tendons at the ends of the muscle.

15

Tendon

attached to bone perioteum

16

Bone Periosteum

specialized connective tissue covering all bones; muscle contractions pull on tendon and, in turn, the bone.

17

Proximal

closest to trunk

18

Distal

farther from trunk

19

Superior

closer to head

20

Inferior

closer to feet

21

Muscle fibers

aka muscle cells; long, cylindrical cells 50-100 micrometers in diameter. Have nuclei situated on outer portion of cell. Striated appearance.

22

Fasciculi

under epimysium; bundles of muscle fibers (up to 150 fibers). Bundles surrounded by perimysium.

23

Perimysium

connective tissue surround fasciculi.

24

Endomysium

surrounds each muscle fiber; encircled by sarcolemma

25

Sarcolemma

fibrous membrane surrounding endomysium

26

Motor Neuron

nerve cell

27

Neuromuscular junction

junction between motor neuron and muscle fiber; aka motor end plate

28

Motor unit

motor neuron and the muscle fiber it innervates; all muscle fibers of a motor unit contract together when they are stimulated by the motor neuron.

29

Sarcoplasm

the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber; contains contractile components consisting pf protein filaments, other proteins, stored glycogen and fat particles, enzymes, and specialized organelles (mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum).

30

Myofibrils

dominate sarcoplasm; contain the apparatus that contracts the muscle cells, which consists primarily of 2 types of myofilaments: myosin and actin.

31

Myofilaments (2)

myosin and actin
-contains up to 200 myosin molecules

32

Myosin

consists of a globular head, a hinge point, and a fibrous tail.
-adjacent myosin filaments anchor to each other at the M-bridge in the center of the sacromere (H-zone)

33

Cross-brdiges

when the globular head of the myosin protrude away from myosin and pairs with actin.

34

Actin

consist of two stands arranged in a double helix.
-aligned at both ends of the sacromere and are anchored at the Z-line.

35

Sarcromere

smallest contractile unit of the skeletal muscle.
-structured having myosin and actin organized longitudinally.

36

A-band

DARK portion of sacromere.
-corresponds with the alignment of the myosin filaments.

37

I-band

LIGHT portion of sacromere.
-corresponds with the areas in two adjacent sacromeres that contain only action.
-shorten during muscle contraction as z-lines are pulled toward center of sacromere

38

Z-line

middle of the I-band and appears as a thin, dark line running longitudinally through the I-band.
-shorten during muscle contraction

39

H-zone

center of the sacromere where only myosin are present
-shorten during muscle contraction bc actin slides over myosin toward center of sacromere.

40

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

parallel to and surrounding each myofibril; asystem of tubules, which terminates as vesicles in the vicinity of the Z-lines.
-these vesicles store Ca+ ions, which control muscle contraction

41

T-tubules

transverse tubules; run perpendicular to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and terminate in the vicinity of the Z-line between two vesicles.
-discharge action potential

42

Action Potential

discharged electrical nerve impulse from a motor nerve signals the release of Ca+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into myofibril, causing tension development in muscle.

43

Sliding-filament Theory

states that actin filaments at each end of the sarcomere slide inward on myosin filaments, pulling the Z-lines toward center of sarcomere and thus shortening the muscle fiber.

44

Troponin

protein situated at regular intervals along the actin filament and has high affinity for Ca+ ions.
-when SR is stimulated to release Ca+, Ca+ binds w/ troponin.

45

Tropomyosin

protein that shifts as a result of troponin binding w/ Ca+.
-runs along the length of the actin filament in the groove of the double helix.

46

Power Stroke

energy for pulling action of the muscle (contraction)
-comes from hydrolysis (breakdown) of ATP to ADP

47

ATP to ADP

catalyzed by the enzyme myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase).

48

Acetylcholine

diffuses across NMJ as a result of AP arriving at nerve terminal, causing excitation of the sarcolemma.

49

All-of-nothing principle

a stronger AP cannot produce a stronger contraction.

50

Twitch

brief muscle contraction

51

Tetanus

stimuli delivered at so high a frequency that the twitches begin to merge and eventually completely fuse.
-this is the maximal amount of force the motor unit can develop.

52

Slow-twitch muscle fibers

develop force and relax slowly and have a long twitch time

53

Fast-twitch muscle fibers

develops force and also relaxes rapidly and have short twitch time

54

Type I

slow-twitch muscle fibers
-efficient, fatigue resistant, high capacity for aerobic energy supply, but have limited potential for rapid force development (low myosin ATPase activity and low anaerobic power)

55

Type II

inefficient, fatigable, low aerobic power, rapid force development, high myosin ATPase activity, and high anaerobic power.

56

Type IIa

greater capacity for aerobic metabolism and more capillaries surrounding them than Type IIx, thus showing a greater resistance to fatigue
-fast-twitch oxidative

57

Type IIx

fast-twitch glycolytic

58

Proprioceptors

specialized sensory receptors located within joints, muscles, and tendons that provide CNS w/ info needed to maintain muscle tone and perform complex coordinated movements.
-sensitive to pressure and tension

59

Muscle Spindles

proprioceptors that consist of several modified muscle fibers enclosed in a sheath of connective tissues
-when muscle is stretched, deformation of muscle spindles activates sensory neuron, sending impulse to spinal cord, which synapses w/ a motor neuron causing muscle contraction.
-opposite of GTO

60

Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO)

proprioceptors located in tendons near the myotendinous junction and are attached end-to-end w/ extrafusal fibers.
-when extremely heavy load is placed on muscle, discharge of GTO occurs. sensory neuron is GTO activate inhibitory interneuron in spinal cord, inhibiting motor neuron, thus reducing tension
-opposite of muscle spindles

61

L and R Atria

deliver blood into L and R ventricles

62

L and R Ventricles

supply the main force for moving blood through the pulmonary and peripheral circulations, respectively.

63

Tricuspid and Mitral valve (atrioventricular valve)

collectively called atrioventricular valve (AV)
prevent blood flow from ventricles back into the atria during ventricular contraction (systole).

64

Aortic and Pulmonary valve (Semilunar valves)

collectively called semilunar valves
-prevent backflow of blood from aorta and pulmonary arteries into ventricles during ventricular relaxation (diastole).

65

Sinoatrial (SA) node

small area of specialized muscle tissue located in the upper lateral wall of the R atrium.
-intrinsic pacemaker, where rhythmic electrical impulses are normally initiated

66

Atrioventricular (AV) node

impulse is delayed slightly before passing into the ventricles
-located in the posterior septal wall of the R atrium.

67

Atrioventricular (AV) bundle

conducts impulse to the ventricles

68

L and R bundle branch

further divide into the Purkinje fibers and conduct impulses to all parts of the ventricles.
-lead from AV bundle into ventricles

69

Myocardium

heart muscle
-inherent rhythmically and conduction properties are influenced by the cardiovascular center of the medulla, which transmits signals to the heart through the sympathetic and parasympathetic NS.

70

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic neurons supplied to:

Atria: both S and PS
Ventricles: alomst exclusively S

71

Normal RHR

60-100 beats/min

72

Bradycardia and Tachycardia

B: fewer than 60 beat/min
T: more than 100 beats/min

73

Electrocardiogram

graph representation of the electrical activity of the heart via the surface of the body
-consist of: P-wave, QRS complex (Q, R, and S waves), and T-wave

74

P-wave and QRS complex

recordings of electrical depolarization, that is the electrical stimulus that leads to mechanical contraction

75

Deplarization

reversal of membrane activity electrical potential
-the normally negative potential inside the membrane becomes slightly positive and the outside becomes slight negative

76

Repolarization

electrical potential generated as the ventricle recover the state of depolarization
-occurs in ventricular muscle shortly after depolarization

77

T-wave

caused by electrical potential generated as the ventricle recover the state of depolarization

78

Arterial system

carries blood away from heart

79

Venous system

returns blood toward heart

80

Arteries

rapidly transport blood pumped from heart

81

Arterioles

small branches of arteries that act as control vessels though which blood enters the capillaries

82

Capillaries

facilitate exchange of oxygen, fluid, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, and other substances between blood and interstitial fluid in the various tissues of the body.

83

Venules

collect blood from capillaries and gradually converge into the progressively larger veins

84

Veins

transport oxygen-depleted blood back to heart

85

Hemoglobin

transport iron-protein of oxygen carried by RBC
-also an acid-base buffer and a regulator of hydrogen ion concentration

86

RBCs

major component of blood-contain large quantities of CO2 and H2O to facilitate CO2 removal

87

Trachea

first passage of air distribution to the lungs

88

Bronchi

second passage of air distribution to the lungs

89

Bronchioles

third and additional passage of air distribution to the lungs (23 total passages)

90

Alveoli

area in lungs where gases are exchanged in respiration

91

Primary function of Respiratory System

basic exchange of O2 and CO2

92

Pleural Pressure

pressure in the narrow space between the lung pleura and the chest wall pleura

93

Pleura

membrane enveloping the lungs and lining the chest walls

94

Alveolar pressure

pressure inside the alveoli when the glottis is open and no air is flowing into our out of the lungs.

95

Diffusion

a simple random motion of molecules moving in opposite directions through the alveolar capillary membrane.
-energy for diffusion is provided by kinetic motion of the molecules.