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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (46):
1

Tissue composition

Cells and their extracellular matrix

2

the primary tissue types

epitherlial, connective, muscle, nervous

3

secondary tissue types of epithelial tissue

1. simple squamous
2. simple columnar
3. simple cuboidal
4. transitional
5. stratified squamous
6. stratified cuboidal
7. stratified columnar
8. psudostratified
9. glandular

4

secondary tissue types of connective tissue

1. connective tissue proper
2. cartilage
3. bone
4. blood

5

secondary tissue types of muscle tissue

1. skeletal
2. cardiac
3. smooth

6

secondary tissue types of nervous tissue

1. neurons
2. neuroglial

7

Tertiary tissue types of cartilage (connective - cartilage - xxxxx)

1. hyaline
2. elastic
3. fibro

8

three main types of sections (tissue sectioning)

1. paraffin
2. Resin
3. Frozen

9

What is the most common type of sectioning in research

paraffin

10

paraffin sections involve ______ and takes between ___ and ___ hours to carryout

type of tissue sectioning: wax, 18-24 hours

11

when wax offers inadequate suppport this type of tissue sectioning is used

What is Resin Sections

12

The two types of resin sectioning

1. Acrylic Resins
2. Epoxy Resins

13

What is Acrylic Resins

harder than paraffin wax and are used in cuting harder tissues such as fingernails and undecalcified bone and can use a wider range of stains

14

What is Epoxy Resins (harder than acrylic resins)

harder than __________ and are used in EM (electron microscopy) sections. special glass knives are used to make very thin cuts. Toluidine blue is often the staiin used in these cuts

15

what is Frozen section

used for urgent intra-op diagnosis. tissue is biopsied/excised sent on ice, snap frozen, cut with cryostat, stained, and diagnosis rendere`d and sent back to OR. takes between 15-30 minutes from biopsy to diagnosis

16

Wher is simple squamous found

Alveoli, glomeruli, capillaries of blood vessels, lining of blood, lymphatic vessels and heart

Functions: diffusion, filtration and lining (friction reducing)

17

Function and location of simple cuboidal

Secretion and absorption

Kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands and ovary surface

18

Simple columnar location and function

Non-ciliated type line digestive tract and gall bladder

Absorption mostly

Ciliated type line small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of uterus

19

Location and function of glandular epithelium

Secretion into a duct

Salivary gland, pancreas, liver, prostate

20

Location and function of transitional epithelium

Appearance (basal are cuboidal, surface are dome shaped)

Function: stretches to permit the distension of the organ

Location: lines urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra

21

Location and function of stratified squamous

Protection

Skin (keratinized)

Linings of the esophagus, mouth and vagina

22

Stratified cuboidal location and function

Secretion

(Typically two cell layers thick)

Rare: found in some sweat and mammary glands

23

Stratified columnar location and function

Secretion

Found in the pharynx, male urethra, lining of some glandular ducts, (transition areas between two other types of epithelium in oral cavity and esophagus)

24

Hyaline location and matrix type

Soft matrix

Trachea, rib-sternum cartilage

25

Elastic location and matrix type

Elastin matrix

Pinna of ears

26

Fibrocartilage matrix and location

Collagen matrix

Intervertebral disc

27

Bone matrix includes

Calcium, phosphorus and collagen

28

Cananiculi

Small tubes in bone for nutrients to osteocytes

29

Haversian canal

Central canal

30

Blood contains what 4 things

RBCs
WBCs
Platelets
Plasma

31

RBC's other name and amount in blood and function

Erythrocytes
4.5-6 million/ml
Carry oxygen

32

WBCs other name, amount in blood, and function

Leukocyte
4800-10800/ml
Fight infection

33

Platelets other name, amount in blood and function

Thrombocytes
150,000-450,000/ml
Involved with blood clotting

34

Plasma components/function

Carries dissolved gasses, hormones, nutrients and waste throughout the body

35

Two types of Leukocytes

Granulocytes and Agranulocytes

36

Types of granulocytes and percentage makeup of total leukocytes

50-70% neutrophils - body security and bacteria slayers

2-4% eosinophils - parasites and cleanup of allergic reaction

<1% basophils - contain histamine, involved with allergic reaction

37

Types of agranulocytes and subtypes and percentage makeup of leukocytes

3-8% Monocytes - macrophage

25% lymphocytes -

T-Lymphocytes:
A: Cytotoxic - natural born killers
B: Memory - remembers the foreign substance
C: Suppressor - stops immune response of T cells

B-Lymphocytes: transform into plasma cells - produce antibodies specific to the invader

38

Leukocyte infection level in blood - bacteria or viral

12,000-15,000/ml = viral
15,000+ = bacterial or bad virus

39

Connective tissue proper subtypes

Dense: regular, irregular, elastic

Loose: areolar, adipose, reticular

40

Neutrophils description and function and %

3 nuclei, light purple interior

Body security and bacteria slayers

50-70%

41

Eosinophils description and function and %

Purple/orange, lots of little balls

Parasites and cleanup of allergic reaction

2-4%

42

Basophils description, function and %

Blue/purple, one massive colored ball

Contain histamine, involved with allergic reaction

<1%

43

Monocytes description, function and %

U shaped nucleus, some purple dots

Becomes a macrophage

3-8%

44

Lymphocytes description, function and %

Huge nucleus, doesn't take up the whole thing though, larger than basophils

Become T and B cells

25%

45

Types and functions of T and B cells

B cells - become plasma cells - produce antibodies specific to the invader

T cells -
Cytotoxic - natural born killers (bounty hunter)
Memory - remembers the foreign substance
Suppressor - stops immune response of T cells

46

Lamelle

The "tree" rings in the bone matrix