What are the 4 functions of the financial services?
- Savings - Protect and Channel into capital
- Match savers and borrowers
What is Reinsurance?
When risks are too big for one company, a Reinsurance company will insure a proportion in exchange for a proportion of the premium
What is a derivative?
Similar to a contract - Used to offset the losses - protection for financial transactions, such as currency.
What are the 2 key objectives of capital markets
- Investors - able to invest in assets that provide growth above inflation
- Companies - able to raise money without help from banks
What financial instruments were created as a result of the key objectives of the capital markets?
- Shares - allows investors to buy a % or ownership from a company, therefore benefitting from company increase in value and receive dividends
- Bonds - allows investors to lend companies money in exchange for pre defined interest payment
Who are the EU Regulatory bodies?
European Supervisory Authorities ESAs
- EBA European Banking Authority
- ESMA European Securities & Markets Authority
- EIOPA European Insurance & Occupational Pensions Authority
What is the role of the European Central Bank (ECB)
Coordinate and control the monetary policy and the interest rates in countries using the Euro
What does the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) primarily deal with
Anti money laundering
What are the 4 key components of the UK Financial Services structure
- Financial infrastructure
- Financial markets
- Financial firms
- Financial authorities
Who oversees, monitors and facilitates the payment systems?
The Bank of England
What are the 3 objectives of the PSR (payment systems regulator)
- Consider and promote the interests of all
- Promotes effective competition
- Promotes development- particularly the infrastructure used to operate the system
What is the purpose of the PSR
To work well for those who use them
Who established the PSR
What are on exchange markets
- FCA regulate the key changes in the UK
- used to trade investments such as equities and derivatives
- specifically designed locations such as London Stock Exchange
What are OTC Markets
- no physical exchanges
* users formed a committee that examine how markets function
What are the ‘core’ services offered by banks and building societies
- current accounts
- savings accounts
What are the ‘extra’ services offered by banks and building societies
- Portfolio management
- Insurance, Investment & Pensions
When was the 3x ESAs created?
When was the FSAP adopted by the European Commission?
Financial Services Action Plan adopted May 1999
What were the 3 objectives of the FSAP
- Create a single EU market
- Open and secure retail markets
- Prudential rules and structures of supervision
What was the FSAP designed to do?
- promote Europe’s wider economy by removing barriers and increasing competition amongst firms, thereby:
- increasing efficiency
- reduction of cost raising capital
Which Gvt department is responsible for the regulation of the market?
Under direct supervision of the Chancellor of the Exchequer
Who is responsible for the regulation and conduct of business in the UK Markets
The Chancellor of the Exchequer
Which key legal instruments govern the regulation and conduct of business?
- FSMA 2000
2. FSA 2012
Current regulatory framework in the UK include …
1 FPC - financial policy committee
- PRA- prudential regulatory authority
- FCA - financial conduct authority
What do the PRA do?
- subsidiary of the B of E
- authorise and regulate larger firms (banks etc)
What do the FCA do
- has conduct and market responsibilities
- Authorises smaller firms (IFAs etc)
What does Prudential mean
Issues such as levels of capital, solvency and risk management
What do tax rates determine
- level of revenue received by the Exchequer
- economic activity of the country
- ability of people to invest
- influences the best/most convenient choice of investment for individuals
What is economic policy
The set of actions the Gvt propose to take on
- Interest rates
What is Fiscal policy
Control of taxation
Gvt spending methods
What is monetary policy
- interest rates
- money supply
Who is responsible for defining the level of Gvt borrowing and expenditure
Chancellor of Exchequer
BUT the responsibility of the control of interest rates lies with the
Monetary Policy Committee MPC
What is described as the ‘dampening effect’ on the economy
When the Gvt borrows money it reduces the amount of money in circulation
What is Quantitive Easing
Bank of England buying back Gilts and Corporate Bonds from financial sector, thus injecting more liquidity into the system.
Who has responsibility for setting interest rates
The Monetary Policy Committee
* prior to 1997 this was the Chancellor of the Exchequer
What 4 things influence the UK economy
- interest rates (key)
What are the aims of the PRA?
Enhance financial stability by promoting the safety and soundness of authorised firms- including minimising the impact of their failure.
What is the objective of the FCA?
To ensure the relevant markets function well.
- Consumer Protection