Flashcards in Chapter 1: History and Exploration of the Ocean Deck (21):
What is functional biology?
How organisms move, feed, reproduce and their adaptations to environments
What is ecology?
How organisms interact with the environment
What is biodiversity?
The amount of species and where those species live in what habitat
History of Aristotle?
(384-322bc) the birth of natural history observations, earliest complete records
History of Linnaeus?
(1707-1778) the systematic classification of genus species naming
History of George Cuvier?
(1764-1832) phylums of organisms in groups and biostratigraphy
Who had the first navigation of exploring the oceans and how did they do it?
First noted explorations by the polynesians who used stars and ocean currents. Radiations occurring around 3000BC
Where did navigation radiate to after its first uses and what year did this occur?
Hawaii and Easter Island South America by 500AD
When did seafaring occur and who built the first map with what prominent information?
Seaferring occurred in 1200BC with the Greeks and Ptolemy created the first map in 150AD where he was the first person to use longitude and latitude with the use of minutes and seconds
Why was there a problem with exploring the oceans and how was it fixed? Also how did the apparatus work?
Latitude can be determined by sextant and stars, but longitude was an issue and a competition to create something to fix this problem resulted in H4 which is a typical clock
Apparatus worked by springs and pendulums so it was not affected by gravity
What is a sextant?
Used to determine latitude and the apparatus was used at to look at the sun
What did Edward Forbes believe? What was this the first of?
Edward proposed the Azoic theory that no life could life past 300 fathoms (600m)
This was the first marine hypothesis
What did Michael Sars do?
He was able to describe that animals drug themselves across the ocean floor, so he disproved the Azoic theory
What did Charles Darwin discover? What this theory called?
He discovered that coral reefs have subsidence where the sea floor would sink down and the coral itself would be growing allowing it to be exposed and showing
This theory is the atoll theory where volcanoes subside
What was the challenger expedition?
Was a voyage in 1872-76 where organisms, currents, temps, and geology was studied and found the Marianas trench (8200m)
What was used on the CE and what theory was refuted by this discovery?
Hemp rope was used to sound out the depths, sample the sea floor and used to study plankton.
The theory refuted was Bathybuis theory of Haeckel that Marine Slime created animals (it was Marine snow)
Name 3 vessels used for sea exploration?
JP Tully, Knorr, and Canada Coast Guard Ship/Research Vessel
What was used to deep sea diving, its year of creation and the depths it reached?
Bathyspheres from the 1930s, at first 13m, then to 760m, deepest ocean point 11,000m with Trieste
What can studiers do to stay in the oceans for long periods of time?
An aquarius underwater sea lab in florida, can spend 6 weeks at a time and can do it twice due to the water pressures!
Name 3 Remote Operated Vehicles and their depths?
Kaiko 1995 deepest dive 10897m, lost in 2003
ROPOS Canada, 5000m
Nereus- 9977m imploded due to pressure