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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Investigating Scientifically Deck (26):

What does Science mean?

It is a process of discovery and the knowledge that is discovered.


What do scientists look for in an observation?



What is a controlled experiment?

Fair tests; designed to investigate relationships between factors (or variables). They involve changing one variable while the others are kept the same.


What is the Scientific method?

1. Recognize a problem and Define a question.

2. Collect as much info as possible relating to the problem

3. Propose a hypothesis using an experiment

4. Test the hypothesis - using an experiment

5. Analyze and interpret the data collected from the experiment

6. Draw conclusions about whether the hypothesis was supported or disproved

7. Report on the investigation


What is a Survey?

A process of systematically collecting, analyzing and interpreting information about an aspect of a study.


What is a case study?

An in-depth investigation of on particular person or situation.


What is a longitudinal study?

One that is conducted over a long period of time. Similar to a case study but more prolonged.


Ethical principles:

•Voluntary participation
•Informed Consent
•Risk of Harm


What's the difference between quantitative and qualitative datas?

Quantitative data is expressed in numbers and usually involving measurement, and Qualitative data is an observation that does not involve numbers or measurements.


Methods to process data.

•Ratios and Rates
•Percentage change


Presentation of Data.

•Line Graphs
•Column graphs and bar graphs


What is a Hypothesis?

A possible explanation to the problem.


What is a literature review?

A survey of the material that has been written about the subject under consideration.


What is the difference between a controlled and uncontrolled variable?

A controlled variable is kept constant for both the experimental and control groups of the experiment whereas the uncontrolled variable is different for both.


What is the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable?

An independent variable is the factor that is being investigated - the factor that is deliberately changed to determine its effect whereas a dependent variable is the facto that changes in response to the changed/independent variable.


What is the difference between validity and reliability?

Reliability is the extent to which an experiment gives the same result each time it is performed and An experiment is valid when it tests what it is supposed to test.


What is Peer Review?

It is a process which ensures that the report is worthy of publication and there is no incorrect, bogus or misleading information.


What is a Report?

A report includes a description of an investigation, the results that were obtained and any conclusions that can be drawn from the results.


What is an Aim?

The purpose of the investigation or "what you are trying to do"?


What is Analyse?

The process where the data, problem, etc, is critically reviewed in order to come to a conclusion.


What is data?

The information collected during an experiment which is often numerical or quantitative.


What are limitations?

They are boundaries within which you are testing.

For eg. Were the variables sufficiently controlled, was the sample side big enough, was the accuracy of the measurement appropriate, were other health aspects taken into consideration when determining the cause of a disease ?


What is a Placebo?

Something that is often used in drug trials. Although it resembles the drug being tested, it is not the drug and is used to see if the effect is due to the drug itself rather than a positive attitude by an individual because they are taking 'something'.


What is a variable?

Any change that can affect an investigation.



The use of new methods/things that gave resulted from scientific investigation. It is also called Applied Science.


What is a 'double blind' test?

In a double blind test neither the test subjects nor the testers know who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group. It is conducted by an independent administrator, subjects are randomly allocated to each group and the results are passed on after proper statistical analysis.