Flashcards in Chapter 1 : Mental Health & Mental Illness Deck (26)
A staff nurse completes orientation to a psychiatric unit. Which of the following would the nurse expect as an advanced practice intervention?
a. Conduct mental health assessments
b. Prescribe psychotropic medication
c. Establish therapeutic relationships
d. Individualize nursing care plans
Prescriptive privileges are granted to master’s-prepared nurse practitioners who have taken special courses on prescribing medication; thus it is an advanced-practice intervention. The nurse prepared at the basic level is permitted to perform mental health assessments, establish relationships, and provide individualized care planning.
When a nursing student expresses concerns about how mental health nurses “lose all their nursing skills,” which of the following is the best response by the mental health nurse?
a. “Psychiatric nurses practise in safer environments than other specialties. Nurse-to-patient ratios must be better because of the nature of the patients’ problems.”
b. “Psychiatric nurses use complex communication skills as well as critical thinking to solve multidimensional problems. I am challenged by those situations.”
c. “That’s a misconception. Psychiatric nurses frequently use high technology monitoring equipment and manage complex intravenous therapies.”
d. “Psychiatric nurses do not have to deal with as much pain and suffering as medical-surgical nurses do. That appeals to me.”
The practice of psychiatric nursing requires a different set of skills from medical-surgical nursing, though there is substantial overlap. Two domains relate specifically to psychiatric nursing: behavioural, including communication, coping, and education; and safety, covering crisis and risk management. Basic psychosocial nursing concepts are central to psychiatric nursing practice and increase your competency as a practitioner in all clinical settings. Whatever setting you choose to work in, you will have the opportunity to improve the lives of people who are experiencing mental illness as an additional challenge to their health.
Your experience in the mental health nursing rotation can help you gain insight into yourself and greatly increase your insight into the experiences of others. This part of nursing education can provide guidelines for and the opportunity to learn new skills for dealing with a variety of challenging behaviours. Psychosocial pain and suffering are as real as physical pain and suffering.
When a new bill introduced in Parliament reduces funding for care of people with mental illness, a group of people with mild mental illness write letters to their elected representatives in opposition to the legislation for all people with mental illness. Which role does this action portray?
d. Social action
An advocate defends or asserts another’s cause, particularly when the other person lacks the ability to do that for himself or herself. On a community scale, advocacy includes political activity, public speaking, and publication in the interest of improving the human condition. Since funding is necessary to deliver quality programming for people with mental illness, the letter-writing campaign advocates for the cause for all people with mental illness.
Which of the following has been identified as a significant trend that will affect the future of psychiatric mental health nursing in Canada?
a. Decrease in the aging population
b. Increase in cultural diversity
c. Role of the advanced-practice nurse
d. Shortage of physicians in rural and urban areas
Four significant trends that have been identified and that will affect the future of psychiatric mental health nursing in Canada include an aging population, and increase in cultural diversity, expanding technology, and an increased awareness of the impact of the determinants of health on mental illness.
Which assessment finding most clearly indicates that a patient may be experiencing a mental illness?
a. The patient reports occasional sleeplessness and anxiety.
b. The patient reports a consistently sad, discouraged, and hopeless mood.
c. The patient is able to describe the difference between “as if” and “for real.”
d. The patient perceives difficulty making a decision about whether to change jobs.
The correct response describes a mood alteration, which reflects mental illness. Alterations in cognition, mood, or behaviour that are coupled with significant distress and impaired functioning characterize mental illness. The distracters describe behaviours that are mentally healthy or within the usual scope of human experience.
Which finding best indicates that the goal “Demonstrates mentally healthy behaviour” was achieved?
a. A patient sees self as capable of achieving ideals and meeting demands.
b. A patient behaves without considering the consequences of personal actions.
c. A patient aggressively meets own needs without considering the rights of others.
d. A patient seeks help from others when assuming responsibility for major areas of own life.
The correct response describes an adaptive, healthy behaviour. The WHO defines mental health as “a state of well-being in which each individual is able to realize his or her own potential, cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively and fruitfully, and make a contribution to the community” (World Health Organization, 2010). The distracters describe maladaptive behaviours.
A nurse encounters an unfamiliar psychiatric disorder on a new patient’s admission form. Which resource should the nurse consult to determine criteria used to establish this diagnosis?
a. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10)
b. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
c. A behavioural health reference manual
d. NurseOne online
The DSM-5 gives the criteria used to diagnose each mental disorder. The distracters may not contain diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric illness.
A nurse wants to find a description of diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders. Which resource would have the most complete information?
a. Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)
b. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
c. The ANA’s Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice
d. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10)
The DSM-5 details the diagnostic criteria for psychiatric clinical conditions and is the official guide for diagnosing psychiatric disorders. The other references are good resources but do not define the diagnostic criteria.
Which individual is demonstrating the highest level of resilience?
a. One who is able to repress stressors.
b. One who becomes depressed after the death of a spouse.
c. One who lives in a shelter for two years after his or her home is destroyed by fire.
d. One who takes a temporary job after loss of a permanent job.
Resilience is closely associated with the process of adapting and helps people facing tragedies, loss, trauma, and severe stress. It is the ability and capacity for people to secure the resources they need to support their well-being. Repression and depression are unhealthy. Living in a shelter for two years shows a failure to move forward after a tragedy. See related audience response question.
Complete this analogy. NANDA: clinical judgement: NIC: _________________
a. Patient outcomes
b. Nursing actions
Analogies show parallel relationships. NANDA, the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, identifies diagnostic statements regarding human responses to actual or potential health problems. These statements represent clinical judgements. NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) identifies actions provided by nurses that enhance patient outcomes. Nursing care activities may be direct or indirect.
A college student said, “Most of the time I’m happy and feel good about myself. I have learned that what I get out of something is proportional to the effort I put into it.” According to the Epp classification, which quadrant outcome should the nurse select?
a. Optimal mental health with mental illness
b. Poor mental health with mental illness
c. Optimal mental health without mental illness
d. Poor mental health without mental illness
The student is happy and has an adequate self-concept. The student is reality-oriented, works effectively, and has control over his or her own behaviour. Mental health does not mean that a person is always happy.
Which disorder is a culture-bound syndrome?
c. Running amok
d. Major depression
Culture-bound syndromes occur in specific sociocultural contexts and are easily recognized by people in those cultures. A syndrome recognized in parts of Southeast Asia is running amok, in which a person (usually a male) runs around engaging in furious, almost indiscriminate violent behaviour.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) classifies which of the following?
a. Deviant behaviours
b. Present disability or distress
c. People with mental disorders
d. Mental disorders people have
The DSM-5 classifies disorders people have rather than people themselves. The terminology of the tool reflects this distinction by referring to individuals with a disorder rather than as a “schizophrenic” or “alcoholic,” for example. Deviant behaviour is not generally considered a mental disorder. Present disability or distress is only one aspect of the diagnosis.
A visitor at a community health fair asks the nurse, “What is the most prevalent mental disorder in Canada?” Select the nurse’s best response.
b. Bipolar disorder
c. Generalized anxiety disorder
d. Major depression
The prevalence of major depressive disorder is 4.1% to 4.6%, and approximately 8% of adults will experience major depression at some time in their lives. The prevalence of schizophrenia is 0.2% to 2% per year. The prevalence of bipolar disorder is 0.2% to 0.6%. The prevalence for generalized anxiety disorder is about 1.1% annually.
Which of the following represents an outcome domain of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOS)?
a. Mental health
b. Perceived health
c. Chronic illness
d. Mental illness
One of the seven outcome domains is perceived health; the other six are functional health, physiologic health, psychosocial health, health knowledge, family health, and community health.
A patient’s relationships are intense and unstable. The patient initially idealizes the significant other and then devalues him or her, resulting in frequent feelings of emptiness. This patient will benefit from interventions to develop which aspect of mental health?
a. Effectiveness in work
b. Communication skills
c. Productive activities
d. Fulfilling relationships
The information provided centres on relationships with others that are described as intense and unstable. The relationships of mentally healthy individuals are stable, satisfying, and socially integrated. They have rich social relationships. Data are not present to describe work effectiveness, communication skills, or activities.
Which belief will best support a nurse’s efforts to provide patient advocacy during a multidisciplinary patient care planning session?
a. All mental illnesses are culturally determined.
b. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are cross-cultural disorders.
c. Symptoms of mental disorders are unchanged from culture to culture.
d. Assessment findings in mental disorders reflect a person’s cultural patterns.
A nurse who understands that a patient’s symptoms are influenced by culture will be able to advocate for the patient to a greater degree than a nurse who believes that culture is of little relevance. The distracters are untrue statements.
A nurse is part of a multidisciplinary team working with groups of depressed patients. Half the patients receive supportive interventions and antidepressant medication. The other half receives only medication. The team measures outcomes for each group. Which type of study is evident?
d. Clinical epidemiology
Clinical epidemiology is a broad field that addresses studies of the natural history (or what happens if there is no treatment and the problem is left to run its course) of an illness, studies of diagnostic screening tests, and observational and experimental studies of interventions used to treat people with the illness or symptoms. Prevalence refers to numbers of new cases. Co-morbidity refers to having more than one mental disorder at a time. Incidence refers to the number of new cases of mental disorders in a healthy population within a given period.
The spouse of a patient diagnosed with schizophrenia says, “I don’t understand how events from childhood have anything to do with this disabling illness.” Which response by the nurse will best help the spouse understand the cause of this disorder?
a. “Psychological stress is the basis of most mental disorders.”
b. “This illness results from developmental factors rather than stress.”
c. “Research suggests that this condition more likely has a biological basis.”
d. “It must be frustrating for you that your spouse is sick so much of the time.”
Many of the most prevalent and disabling mental disorders have strong biological influences. Genetics is only one part of biological factors. Empathy does not address increasing the spouse’s level of knowledge about the cause of the disorder. The other distracters are not established facts.
A category 5 tornado occurred in a community of 400 people, resulting in destruction of many homes and businesses. In the 2 years after this disaster, 140 individuals were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Which term best applies to these newly diagnosed cases?
d. Clinical epidemiology
Incidence refers to the number of new cases of mental disorders in a healthy population within a given period of time. Prevalence describes the total number of cases, new and existing, in a given population during a specific period of time, regardless of when they became ill. Clinical epidemiology is a broad field that addresses what happens after people with illnesses are seen by clinical care providers.Co-morbidity refers to having more than one mental disorder at a time.
Most psychiatric disorders are the result of which of the following?
a. Childhood trauma
b. Adverse life events
c. Multiple defective genes
d. Chronic medical conditions
Most psychiatric disorders are the result of multiple mutated or defective genes, each of which in combination may contribute to the disorder. Although disorders may be caused by childhood trauma, adverse live events, and chronic medical conditions, they are not the cause of the majority of psychiatric disorders.
Select the best response for the nurse who receives a question from another health professional seeking to understand the difference between a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnosis and a nursing diagnosis.
a. “There is no functional difference between the two. Both identify human disorders.”
b. “The DSM-5 diagnosis disregards culture, whereas the nursing diagnosis takes culture into account.”
c. “The DSM-5 diagnosis describes causes of disorders, whereas a nursing diagnosis does not explore etiology.”
d. “The DSM-5 diagnosis guides medical treatment, whereas the nursing diagnosis offers a framework for identifying interventions for issues a patient is experiencing.”
The medical diagnosis is concerned with the patient’s disease state, causes, and cures, whereas the nursing diagnosis focuses on the patient’s response to stress and possible caring interventions. Both tools consider culture. The DSM-5 is multiaxial. Nursing diagnoses also consider potential problems.
Which nursing intervention below is part of the scope of an advanced-practice psychiatric mental health nurse only?
a. Coordination of care
b. Health teaching
c. Milieu therapy
Psychotherapy is part of the scope of practice of an advanced-practice nurse. The distracters are within a staff nurse’s scope of practice.
An experienced nurse says to a new graduate, “When you’ve practiced as long as I have, you instantly know how to take care of psychotic patients.” What information should the new graduate consider when analyzing this comment? Select all that apply.
a. The experienced nurse may need to be reminded of the importance of standardized classifications.
b. New research findings should be integrated continuously into a nurse’s practice to provide the most effective care.
c. Experience provides mental health nurses with the essential tools and skills needed for effective professional practice.
d. Experienced psychiatric nurses have learned the best ways to care for mentally ill patients through trial and error.
e. An intuitive sense of patients’ needs guides effective psychiatric nurses.
ANS: A, B
Evidence-informed practice involves using research findings and standards of care to provide the most effective nursing care. Evidence is continuously emerging, so nurses cannot rely solely on experience. The effective nurse also maintains respect for each patient as an individual. Overgeneralization compromises that perspective. Intuition and trial and error are unsystematic approaches to care.
Which findings are signs of a person who is mentally healthy? Select all that apply.
a. Says, “I have some weaknesses, but I feel I’m important to my family and friends.”
b. Adheres strictly to religious beliefs of parents and family of origin
c. Spends all holidays alone watching old movies on television
d. Considers past experiences when deciding about the future
e. Experiences feelings of conflict related to changing jobs
ANS: A, D, E
Mental health is a state of well-being in which each individual is able to realize his or her own potential, cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively, and make a contribution to the community. Mental health provides people with the capacity for rational thinking, communication skills, learning, emotional growth, resilience, and self-esteem.