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Human Physiology: From Cells To Systems > Chapter 1 Objective Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Objective Questions Deck (28)
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1

Which of the following activities is not carried out by every cell in the body?
a) Obtaining oxygen and nutrients
b) Performing chemical reactions to acquire energy for the cell's use
c) Eliminating wastes
d) Controlling to a large extent exchange of materials between the cell and its external environment
e) reproducing

e) reproducing

2

What is the proper progression of the levels of organization in the body?

Chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, body systems, whole body

3

Which of the following is NOT a type of connective tissue?
a) Bone
b) Blood
c) The spinal cord
d) Tendons
e) the tissue that attaches epithelial tissue to underlying structures

c) the spinal cord

4

The term tissue can apply to either one of the four primary tissue types or to a particular organ's aggregate of cellular and extracellular components (true or false)

True

5

Cells in a multicellular organism have specialized to such an extent that they have little in common with single-celled organisms (true or false)

False

6

Cell specializations are usually a modification or elaboration of one of the basic cell functions (true or false)

True

7

What are the four primary types of tissue?

1) Muscle Tissue
2) Nervous Tissue
3) Epithelial Tissue
4) Connective tissue

8

The term ______ refers to the release from a cell, in response to appropriate stimulation, of specific products that have in large part been synthesized by the cell

Secretion

9

______ glands secrete through ducts to the outside of the body, whereas ______ glands release their secretory products, known as _______, internally into the blood

EXOCRINE glands secrete through ducts to the outside of the body, whereas ENDOCRINE glands release their secretory products, known as HORMONES, internally into the blood

10

______ controls are inherent to an organ, whereas _______ controls are regulatory mechanisms initiated outside an organ that alter the activity of the organ

INTRINSIC controls are inherent to an organ, whereas EXTRINSIC controls are regulatory mechanisms initiated outside an organ that alter the activity of the organ

11

What system is being described:
"Obtains oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide"

Respiratory

12

What system is being described:
"Support, protect and move body parts"

Skeletal and Muscular system

13

What system is being described:
"Controls, via hormones it secretes, processes that require duration"

Endocrine System

14

What system is being described:
"Acts as transport system"

Circulatory System

15

What system is being described:
"Removes wastes and excess water, salt, and other electrolytes"

Urinary System

16

What system is being described:
"Perpetuates the species"

Reproductive System

17

What system is being described:
"Obtains nutrients, water, and electrolytes"

Digestive System

18

What system is being described:
"Defends against foreign invaders and cancer"

Immune System

19

What system is being described:
"Acts through electrical signals to control body's rapid responses"

Nervous System

20

What system is being described:
"Serves as outer protective barrier"

Integumentary System

21

Define Physiology

The scientific study of the functions of the body

22

What are the 8 basic cell functions?

1) Obtaining nutrients and oxygen from the environment surrounding the cell

2) Performing chemical reactions that use nutrients and oxygen to provide energy for the cells: Food+O2->CO2 + H2O + energy

3) Eliminating from the cells internal environment CO2 and other by-products, or wastes, produced during these chemical reactions

4) Synthesizing proteins and other components needed for cell structure, growth, and carrying out particular cell functions

5) Controlling to a large extent the exchange of materials between the cell and its surrounding environment

6) Moving materials from one part of the cell to another when carrying out cell activities. Some cells are even able to move through their surrounding environment

7) Being sensitive and responsive to changes in the surrounding environment

8) Reproducing (for most cells) nerve cells and cardiac cells lose ability to reproduce

23

Distinguish between the external environment and the internal environment. What constitutes the internal environment?

External Environment: Outside Body
Internal Environment: Extracellular Fluid (outside cells inside body) - made of plasma and interstitial fluid

24

What fluid compartments make up the internal environment?

Plasma and interstitial fluid

25

Define homeostasis

Ability of a cell or organism to regulate its internal conditions, typically using feedback systems to minimize variation and maintain health regardless of external environmental changes

26

What factors must be homeostatically maintained?

1) [nutrient molecules]
2) [O2] and [CO2]
3) [Waste products]
4) pH
5) [Water], [Salt], and other electrolytes
6) Volume and pressure
7) Temperature

27

Define and describe the components of a homeostatic control system

Homeostatic control systems must have
1) Receptor - detect changes from normal in the internal environment
2) Control centre - Integrate the info with other relevant information
3) Effector - trigger the needed adjustments to restore factor within normal range

28

Compare and contrast negative and positive feedback

Negative feedback is meant to reverse changes from normal back into normal range (eg sweating to cool down) while positive feedback amplifies the deviation (eg childbirth)