Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding Deck (37)
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1

What is the shape of a s orbital?

Sphere

2

What is the shape of a p orbital?

Like an infinity sign with two lobes

3

What is at the center of a p orbital?

A node

4

What are isotopes?

Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

5

What is the mass number?

Sum of protons and neutrons in an atom

6

What are valence electrons?

Electrons in outermost shell of atom

7

What does degenerate mean?

Same energy

8

What does ionic bonding involve?

Transfer of electrons

9

What does covalent bonding involve?

Sharing of electrons?

10

What is a nonpolar covalent bond?

Bond with electrons shared equally between 2 atoms

11

What is a polar covalent bond?

Bond with uneven electron density between 2 atoms

12

What is a dipole moment?

Involves charge separation, where one atom is partially negative and the other is partially positive

13

What periodic trend can be used to predict whether a bond will be polar and the direction of the dipole moment?

Electronegativity

14

Formal charge fast formula?

Should-has

15

With non-equivalent resonance structures, how do you decide which one is the major contributor?

The major contributor is the structure with the least amount of spread out charges; opposite charges should be on atoms that are next to each other.

16

What is delocalization?

Spreading out of charges

17

What is hybridization?

Combining orbitals that belong to the same atom

18

What is an electrophile/Lewis acid?

Accepts electron pair

19

What is a nucleophile/Lewis base?

Donates electron pair

20

What is an isomer?

Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural arrangement of atoms

21

What are constitution/structural isomers?

Isomers with the same chemical formula, but the atoms are connected in a different order

22

What are stereoisomers?

Isomers with atoms in the same order but with different orientations

23

What are 2 kinds of stereoisomers?

Cis and trans

24

What is a molecular orbital?

The overlap between the atomic orbitals of 2 DIFFERENT atoms

25

When do cis and trans geometric stereoisomers occur?

When there is a double bond in the compound

26

Can double bonds rotate?

NO

27

Can single bonds rotate?

YES

28

Are bonding molecular orbitals lower or higher in energy than the original atomic orbitals on separate atoms?

Lower

29

Is the antibonding molecular orbital higher or lower in energy than the original atomic orbitals on separate atoms?

Higher

30

What does in-phase overlap mean in regards to molecular orbitals?

Atomic orbitals with the same charge are overlapping to form a bonding molecular orbital