Flashcards in Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding Deck (37)
What is the shape of a s orbital?
What is the shape of a p orbital?
Like an infinity sign with two lobes
What is at the center of a p orbital?
What are isotopes?
Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
What is the mass number?
Sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
What are valence electrons?
Electrons in outermost shell of atom
What does degenerate mean?
What does ionic bonding involve?
Transfer of electrons
What does covalent bonding involve?
Sharing of electrons?
What is a nonpolar covalent bond?
Bond with electrons shared equally between 2 atoms
What is a polar covalent bond?
Bond with uneven electron density between 2 atoms
What is a dipole moment?
Involves charge separation, where one atom is partially negative and the other is partially positive
What periodic trend can be used to predict whether a bond will be polar and the direction of the dipole moment?
Formal charge fast formula?
With non-equivalent resonance structures, how do you decide which one is the major contributor?
The major contributor is the structure with the least amount of spread out charges; opposite charges should be on atoms that are next to each other.
What is delocalization?
Spreading out of charges
What is hybridization?
Combining orbitals that belong to the same atom
What is an electrophile/Lewis acid?
Accepts electron pair
What is a nucleophile/Lewis base?
Donates electron pair
What is an isomer?
Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural arrangement of atoms
What are constitution/structural isomers?
Isomers with the same chemical formula, but the atoms are connected in a different order
What are stereoisomers?
Isomers with atoms in the same order but with different orientations
What are 2 kinds of stereoisomers?
Cis and trans
What is a molecular orbital?
The overlap between the atomic orbitals of 2 DIFFERENT atoms
When do cis and trans geometric stereoisomers occur?
When there is a double bond in the compound
Can double bonds rotate?
Can single bonds rotate?
Are bonding molecular orbitals lower or higher in energy than the original atomic orbitals on separate atoms?
Is the antibonding molecular orbital higher or lower in energy than the original atomic orbitals on separate atoms?