Chapter 1 The Earth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 The Earth Deck (29):
1

Eons are divided into...

Eras

2

Earth is the ___ planet away from the sun

3rd

3

Biosphere includes all forms of ___

Life (plants and animals)

4

Hydrosphere includes all forms of ___

Water (fresh and saltwater, snow and ice)

5

Crust makes up only ___ of earths total mass

.5%

6

Crust floats on top of...

Mantle

7

Most of earths mass is in the...

Mantle

8

Outer core is so hot it is...

Molten

9

When two oceanic plates converge, they create...

An island arc, a curved chain of volcanic islands rising from the deal sea floor and near a continent.

10

When two continental plates COLLIDE, what is created? And how?

Mountain ranges, and by the colliding crust being compressed and pushed upwards.

11

Focus definition

Area where the energy is released during an earthquake

12

Epicenter

Directly above the focus, on Earths surface, is the epicenter

13

The strength of an earthquake is measured by the...

Logarithmic Richter scale

14

An earthquake is recorded on a...

Seismograph

15

P waves

Travel through Earth and are caused by expansion and contraction of bedrocks

16

S waves

Produced when materials move either vertically or horizontally and travel only within the uppermost layers of Earth

17

Surface waves

Cause ground motion and damage, produce rolling and swaying motion and are slower than P or S waves

18

When does an eruption occur for a volcano?

When pressure within a magma chamber forces molten magma up through a pipe and out a vent at the top of the volcano

19

Earth is closest to the sun during...

The northern hemisphere winter (December, January, and February)

20

Topography

Physical location where soil is formed

21

Soil horizons in order

-O HORIZON
-A HORIZON
-E HORIZON
-B HORIZON
-C HORIZON
-Bedrock

22

O horizon (surface litter)

Leaves and partially decomposed organic debris.

23

A horizon (topsoil)

Organic matter (humus), living organisms

24

E horizon (zone of leaching)

Dissolved and suspended materials move downward

25

Sheet erosion

Soil moves off as a horizontal layer

26

Salinization

Water that is not absorbed into the soil and evaporates leaving behind dissolved salts

27

Waterlogging

Saturation of soil with water

28

Metamorphic rocks

Formed by intense heat and pressure

29

Igneous

Formed by cooling and solidify deep underground