Chapter 1 - Vocabulary from Text Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Vocabulary from Text Deck (50):
1

_______ is the study of the nature, properties, and transformation of matter.

Chemistry

2

_______ is the physical material that makes up the universe; anything that has mass and occupies space.

Matter

3

_________ is the systematic process of observation, hypothesis, and experimentation used to expand and refine a body of knowledge.

Property

4

____________ is a change that does not affect the chemical makeup of substance or object.

Physical Change

5

____________ is a change in the chemical makeup of a substance.

Chemical Change

6

Sugar dissolving in water is a __________.

Physical Change

7

Sugar heated in a saucepan to make caramel is a ____________.

Chemical Change

8

A _______ is a substance that has a definite shape and volume.

Solid

9

A _______ is a substance that has a definite volume but assumes the shape of its container.

Liquid

10

A _______ is a substance that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape.

Gas

11

The ___________ is the physical state of a substance as a solid, liquid, r gas.

State of Matter

12

The ___________ is the conversion of a substance from one state to another. For example, a liquid to a gas.

Change of State

13

A ___________ is a substance that has a uniform chemical composition throughout.

Pure Substance

14

A _________ is a blend of two or more substances, each of which retains its chemical identity.

Mixture

15

A __________________ is a uniform mixture that has the same composition throughout.

Homogeneous Mixture

16

A __________________ is a nonuniform mixture that has regions of different composition.

Heterogeneous Mixture

17

A ___________ is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any simpler substance.

Element

18

A _________________ is a pure substance that can be borken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions.

Chemical Compound

19

Is vanilla ice cream a mixture or a pure substance?

Homogeneous Mixture

20

Is sugar a mixture or a pure substance?

Pure Substance

21

Is concrete a mixture or a pure substance?

Heterogeneous Mixture

22

Is a lead weight a mixture or a pure substance?

Pure Substance

23

Is the following a mixture or a pure substance, Helium inside of a balloon?

Pure Substance

24

Is wood a mixture or a pure substance?

Heterogeneous Mixture

25

A _________________ is a notation for a chemical compound using element symbols and subscripts to show how many atoms of each element are present.

Chemical Formula

26

A ____________ is a process in which the identity and composition of one or more substances are changed.

Chemical Reaction

27

A ____________ is a starting substance that undergoes change during a chemical reaction.

Reactant

28

A ___________ is a substance formed as the result of chemical reaction.

Product

29

A ________________ is a physical property that can be measured.

Physical Quantity

30

A ______ is a defined quantity used as a standard of measurement.

Unit

31

______ are units of measurement defined by the International System of Units.

SI Units

32

A number expressed as the product of a number between 1 and 10, times the number 10 raised to a ppwer is known as ______________________.

Scientific Notation

33

_______ is a measure of the amount of matter in an object.

Mass

34

_______ is a measure of the gravitational force that the earth or other large body exerts on an object.

Weight

35

__________ are the number of meaningful digits used to express a value.

Significant Figures

36

Name the rule for counting significant figures: Zeros that are in between 2 non zero numbers.

Trapped Zeros

37

Name the rule for counting significant figures: Zeros that are before any non zero number.

Leading Zeros

38

Name the rule for counting significant figures: Zeros with a decimal

Trailing Zero

39

Name the rule for counting significant figures: Zeros without a decimal.

Trailing Zero

40

What is the counting rule for Trapped Zeros?

Trapped zeros are ALWAYS significant. Ex. 103 has 3 SF

41

What is the counting rule for Leading Zeros?

Leading zeros are NEVER significant. Ex. 0.00346 has 3 SF

42

What is the first counting rule for Trailing Zeros?

Trailing Zeros with a decimal count as Significant Figures. Ex. 236.0 has 4 SF

43

What is the second counting rule for Trailing Zeros?

Trailing Zeros without a decimal NEVER count as a significant figure unless indicated with a decimal or line above the number. Ex. 2130 has 3 SF

44

What is the rule for adding/subtracting significant figures?

The amount of SF in your final answer depends on the place of uncertainty.

45

What is the rule for multiplying/dividing significant figures?

The number with the least SF in your problem affects how many SF you can have in your answer.

46

If you are multiplying/dividing significant figures and you drop a number before a decimal what must you do to your answer?

Add a zero for the dropped number to hold its magnitude.

47

________ is the capacity to do work or supply heat.

Energy

48

____________ is the measure of the amount of heat energy in an object.

Temperature

49

_________ is the physical property that relates the mass of an object to its volume; mass per unit volume.

Density

50

_____________ is the density of a substance divided by the density of water at the same temperature.

Specific Gravity