Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (49):
1

have characteristics of both living and non-living things

viruses

2

what are the components of a virus

DNA (or RNA) and protein

3

used 2 types of pneumococcus bacteria (type s & type r)

griffith

4

differences between the two types of pneumococcus bacteria

type s- caused diseases in mice
type r- harmless

5

what happened when griffith mixed dead S with live R

the mice died, living S cells were found in the dead mice

6

what did griffith’s experiments conclude

something remaining in the dead type S changed the type R into type S

7

cells change phenotype

transformation

8

chemically identified griffith’s “transforming factor” as DNA

Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty

9

used bacteriophages

Hershey and Chase

10

structure of DNA

2 polynucleotide chains

11

3 parts of a nucleotide

nitrogenous base, 5-carbon-sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate group

12

pyrimidines

thymine & cytosine

13

purines

adenine & guanine

14

strong bonds between nucleotides

covalent bonds

15

what parts of nucleotides are bonded covalently

sugar of 1 nucleotide and the phosphate group of the next (sugar-phosphate backbone)

16

shape of DNA

double helix

17

discovered DNA’s structure

watson and crick

18

provided information to the discovery of DNA’s structure through x-ray crystallography

Franklin

19

complimentary base pairing rules

A bonds with T
C bonds with G

20

which type of bond holds nitrogenous bases together

hydrogen bonds

21

semiconservative

each double helix is 1/2 old and 1/2 new

22

enzyme that breaks hydrogen bonds between base pairs

helicase

23

enzyme that links nucleotides together and checks for mistakes

DNA polymerase

24

how does genotype determine phenotype

DNA determines the synthesis of proteins

25

made connections between DNA and protein using experiments with bread mold; “one gene- one enzyme hypothesis” “one gene-one polypeptide”

Beadle and Tatum

26

2 steps of protein synthesis

transcription and translation

27

copying information in genes (DNA) into RNA molecules

Transcription

28

decoding RNA to make protein

Translation

29

where does transcription occur

in the nucleus

30

enzyme that links RNA nucleotides to complementary DNA nucleotides during transcription

RNA polymerase

31

how many phases are in transcription

3 phases; initiation, elongation, termination

32

what happens in initiation

1) RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter
2) DNA sequence indicating the beginning of the sequence

33

what happens in elongation

1) RNA polymerase moves along gene
2) complementary RNA nucleotides bond to DNA and are linked together by RNA polymerase

34

what happens in termination

1) RNA polymerase reaches terminator and detaches from the gene
2) RNA peels away from DNA
3) DNA zips back up

35

what are the three types of RNA

1) messenger (mRNA)
2) ribosomal (rRNA)
3) transfer (tRNA)

36

contains info from DNA; encodes the amino acid sequence to be made

messenger RNA (mRNA)

37

along w protein, makes up ribosomes

ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

38

brings correct amino acid to ribosome according to code in mRNA

transfer RNA (tRNA)

39

single strand of RNA; 80 nucleotides long

tRNA

40

complementary to mRNA codons

anticodon

41

initiation in translation

1) mRNA binds to ribosome
2) tRNA with complementary anticodon binds to start codon on mRNA

42

elongation in translation

1) mRNA moves through ribosome
2) tRNA carrying next aa binds to mRNA
3) aa linked by peptide bonds
4) tRNA detaches and can pick up the same aa for use later in the chain

43

termination in translation

1) stop codon on mRNA reaches ribosome
2) polypeptide is released from ribosome

44

2 types of mutations

base substitution or base insertion/deletion

45

1 nucleotide replaces w another

base substitution

46

add/ remove 1 or more nucleotides

base insertion/ deletion

47

which type of mutation causes a bigger change in the polypeptide

changes the reading frame ; stop codon could be inserted too early

48

creation of mutations

mutagenesis

49

how does mutagenesis occur

1) spontaneously during DNA replication
2) via mutagens - agents causing mutation (chemicals, radiation) ex UV light