Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (34):
What is balance?
When the body is in equilibrium and stationary, meaning no linear or angular movement.
Give an example of balance.
Maintain and handstand without falling over
What is Dynamic Balance?
The ability to move and change directions under various conditions without falling.
Give an example of dynamic balance.
Running on uneven surfaces
DYNAMIC balance is strongly influenced by OTHER NEUROMUSCULAR SKILLS such as ____, ____, ____, and ____.
Maintenance of postural equilibrium (balance) is an integrated process requiring ______, _______, and ______ using _____ and _____.
1. Muscle Balance (length-tension relationships and force-couple relationships)
2. Joint Dynamics (Arthrokinematics)
3. Neuromuscular Efficiency using visual, vestibular (inner ear), and proprioceptive inputs.
What is the Integrated Performance Paradigm?
Adequate force reduction (eccentric) and stability are required for optimal force production (concentric).
(The ability to reduce force at the right joint, at the right time, and in the right plane of motion requires optical levels of dynamic balance and neuromuscular efficiency.
Alterations in the kinetic chain before, during or after exercise can further affect movement quality and bring about flawed movement patterns. List 5 ways it can affect the body. (extra credit)
1. Alters the FIRING ORDER of the muscles activated
2. Disturbs specific FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT PATTERNS
3. Decreases NEUROMUSCULAR EFFICIENCY
4. PRIME MOVERS may be SLOW TO ACTIVATE
5. SYNERGISTS and stabilizers SUBSTITUTE and become OVERACTIVE (synergistic dominance)
Describe the progression of effects from joint dysfunction (4).
--> Muscle Inhibition
--> Joint Injury
--> Altered Proprioception (interruption of sensory input from articular, ligamentous and muscular mechanreceptors to the CNS) (like with ankle sprains, ligamentous injuries to the knee, and low back pain). **CHRIS**
What is limit of stability? What is another name for it?
--The DISTANCE OUTSIDE of the BASE OF SUPPORT that he/she can move into WITHOUT LOSING CONTROL of his/her center of gravity.
List some requirements for balance training.
-Must be stressed in multiplanar, proprioceptively enriched environment.
-Must use functional movement patterns to improve dynamic balance and neuromuscular efficiency.
What is a benefit of balance training for health?
Reduces the rate of ankle sprains and other lower extremity injuries.
Static and Dynamic Balanve Ability may improve if ...
1. Performed for at least 10 minutes a day
3. For 4 weeks
What is the main goal of a balance training program?
To continually increase AWARENESS of his/her LIMIT OF STABILITY (or kinesthetic awareness) by creating controlled instability.
List 3 ways to create progressions for balance training. (only change one variable at a time)
1. Change Surface - from stable (floor) to unstable (half foam roll, foam pad, balance disc)
2. Visual Condition - eyes open (easier) eyes closed or moving head around to look at various object or performing cognitive tasks simultaneously (harder).
3. Body Position / Movement - moving the contralateral limb, trunk or arms. or standing on one leg versus two.
What are some balance-STABILIZATION exercises?
1. Single-Leg Balance
2. Single-Leg Balance Reach
3. Single-Leg Hip Internal and External Rotation
4. Single-Leg Lift and Chop
5. SIngle-Leg Throw and Catch
Describe the movements of balance-stabilization exercises?
What is it designed to improve?
How does it work?
1. Involves little joint motion
2. Designed to improve reflexive (automatic) joint stabilization
3. The body is placed in unstable environments so it learns to react by contracting the right muscles at the right time to maintain balance.
Describe the movements for balance-STRENGTH exercises?
What do movements require?
What is progressed in this level?
What is it designed to improve?
1. Dynamic eccentric and concentric movement of the balance leg through a full range of motion
2. Movements require dynamic control in mid-range of motion and isometric stabilization at the end-range of motion
3. Specificity, speed, and neural demand of each exercise are progressed in this level
4. Designed to improve the neuromuscular efficiency of the ENTIRE HMS
What are some balance-strength exercises?
1. Single-Leg Squat
2. Single-Leg Touchdown
3. Single-Leg Romanian Deadlift
4. Multiplanar Step-Up to Balance
5. Multiplanar Lunge to Balance
What are balance-POWER exercises designed to develop what kind of movements?
- Designed to develop proper deceleration ability to move the body from a dynamic state to a controlled stationary position as well as high levels of eccentric strength, dynamic neuromuscular efficiency, and reactive joint stabilization.
What are some balance-power exercises?
1. Multiplanar Hop with Stabilzation
2. Multiplanar Single-Leg Box Hop-Up with Stabilization
3. Multiplanar Single-Leg Box Hop-Down with Stabilization
Not following the proper progression during balance training can cause what two things?
1. Movement compensations
2. Increased risk for injury
What is an important technique during the SINGLE LEG BALANCE exercise and why?
Contract gluteals to stabilize lower extremity
During the SINGLE LEG BALANCE REACH what is an important safety technique and why?
Keep the hips level to decrease stress to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex.
During SINGLE LEG HIP ROTATION what is an important safety rule and why?
Rotate through the HIP of the balance leg versus the spine to decrease stress on the spine and enhance control of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex.
During the SINGLE-LEG LIFT AND CHOP what is an important safety technique?
Keep knee of the balance leg in line with the toes.
During the SINGLE LEG THROW AND CATCH what are 3 methods to increase the demand?
1. Toss the ball and different heights and across the body
2. Increase the distance between the two people
3. Increase velocity of each throw
During a SINGLE LEG SQUAT what should be watched out for and why?
-Keep knee in line with the toe and don't move inside or outside the 2nd or 3rd toe.
-This will decrease stress to the knee.
During the SINGLE LEG SQUAT TOUCHDOWN OR THE ROMANIAN DEADLIFT what can be done if they cannot reach their foot?
First work on reaching their knee, and then shin first.
During MULTIPLANAR STEP-UP TO BALANCE what's a good technique to incorporate and why?
Make the balance leg's hip is in full extension during the end position
To maximally recruit the glutes.
During MULTIPLANAR LUNGE TO BALANCE what is an important safety technique and why?
Make sure the stride length is not too large if one has tight hip flexors.
This can force the spine into excessive extension increasing stress to the low back
During all balance-power exercises what are two important safety technique and why?
1. Make sure the landing is soft (quiet)
2. Keep the knee in line with the 2nd and 3rd toes
To ensure efficient acceptance of forces through the tissues
In balance power exercises what should the tempo be like?
Controlled, holding the landing position for 3-5 seconds