Chapter 10 Balance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Balance Deck (59):
1

What is when the body is in equilibrium and stationary, meaning no linear or angular movement?

Balance

2

Give an example of balance.

Maintain and handstand without falling over

3

What is the ability to move and change directions under various conditions without falling?

Dynamic Balance

4

Give an example of dynamic balance.

Running on uneven surfaces

5

 

DYNAMIC balance is strongly influenced by OTHER NEUROMUSCULAR SKILLS such as ____, ____, ____, and ____.

 

 

1. Speed

2. Endurance

3. Flexibility

4. Strength

 

6

 

Maintenance of postural equilibrium (balance) is an integrated process requiring _______, and ______ using _____.

 

 

1. Muscle Balance (length-tension relationships and force-couple relationships)

2. Joint Dynamics (Arthrokinematics)

3. Neuromuscular Efficiency using visual, vestibular (inner ear), and proprioceptive inputs.

 

7

 

Adequate force reduction (eccentric) and stability are required for optimal force production (concentric). (The ability to reduce force at the right joint, at the right time, and in the right plane of motion requires optical levels of dynamic balance and neuromuscular efficiency.

What is this called?

 

The Integrated Performance Paradigm

 

8

 

Alterations in the kinetic chain before, during or after exercise can further affect movement quality and bring about flawed movement patterns. List 5 ways it can affect the body. (extra credit)

 

 

1. Alters the FIRING ORDER of the muscles activated

2. Disturbs specific FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT PATTERNS

3. Decreases NEUROMUSCULAR EFFICIENCY

4. PRIME MOVERS may be SLOW TO ACTIVATE 5. SYNERGISTS and stabilizers SUBSTITUTE and become OVERACTIVE (synergistic dominance)

 

9

 

Describe the progression of effects from joint dysfunction (4).

 

 

Joint Dysfunction -->

Muscle Inhibition -->

Joint Injury -->

Swelling -->

Altered Proprioception (interruption of sensory input from articular, ligamentous and muscular mechanreceptors to the CNS) (like with ankle sprains, ligamentous injuries to the knee, and low back pain). **CHRIS**

 

10

What is another name for Limit of stability? 

-Balance Threshold

--The DISTANCE OUTSIDE of the BASE OF SUPPORT that he/she can move into WITHOUT LOSING CONTROL of his/her center of gravity.

11

List 2 requirements for balance training.

-Must be stressed in multiplanar, proprioceptively enriched environment.

-Must use functional movement patterns to improve dynamic balance and neuromuscular efficiency.

12

What is a benefit of balance training for health?

Reduces the rate of ankle sprains and other lower extremity injuries.

13

Static and Dynamic Balance Ability may improve if ...

-Performed for at least 10 minutes a day

-3x/week

-For 4 weeks

14

What is the main goal of a balance training program?

To continually increase AWARENESS of his/her LIMIT OF STABILITY (or kinesthetic awareness) by creating controlled instability.

15

List 3 ways to create progressions for balance training. (only change one variable at a time)

1. Change Surface - from stable (floor) to unstable (half foam roll, foam pad, balance disc)

2. Visual Condition - eyes open (easier) eyes closed or moving head around to look at various object or performing cognitive tasks simultaneously (harder).

3. Body Position / Movement - moving the contralateral limb, trunk or arms. or standing on one leg versus two.

16

 

What type of exercise involves little joint motion. The body is placed in unstable environments so it learns to react by contracting the right muscles at the right time to maintain balance. Designed to improve reflexive (automatic) joint stabilization.

 

 

Balance-Stabilization Exercises

 

17

 

What type of exercise has dynamic eccentric and concentric movement of the balance leg through a full range of motion? Movements require dynamic control in mid-range of motion and isometric stabilization at the end-range of motion. Specificity, speed, and neural demand of each exercise are progressed in this level. Designed to improve the neuromuscular efficiency of the ENTIRE HMS.

 

 

Balance-STRENGTH exercises

 

18

 

What tye of exercise is designed to develop proper deceleration ability to move the body from a dynamic state to a controlled stationary position as well as high levels of eccentric strength, dynamic neuromuscular efficiency, and reactive joint stabilization.

 

 

Balance-POWER exercises

 

19

 

Not following the proper progression during balance training can cause what two things?

 

 

1. Movement compensations

2. Increased risk for injury

 

20

What is an important technique during the SINGLE LEG BALANCE exercise and why?

Contract gluteals to stabilize lower extremity

21

 

During all balance-power exercises what are two important safety technique and why?

 

 

1. Make sure the landing is soft (quiet)

2. Keep the knee in line with the 2nd and 3rd toes To ensure efficient acceptance of forces through the tissues

 

22

In balance power exercises what should the tempo be like?

Controlled, holding the landing position for 3-5 seconds

23

What is the number balance exercises one should perform in each level of the OPT model?

Stabilization- 1-4

Strength- 0-4 (It does not fit some client goals like hypertrophy)

Power- 0-2 (Dynamic stretches have a balance component)

24

What is the systematic progression of balance exercises?

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25

Single-Leg Balance Reach

Balance Stabilization Exercise

Keep hips level and neutral

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26

Single-Leg Hip Roatation

Balance Stabilization Exercise

Rotate through hips not the spine

A image thumb
27

Single-leg Lift and Chop

Balance Stabilization Exercise

Keep knee of stable leg in line with toes

A image thumb
28

Single-Leg Throw and Catch

Balance Stabilization Exercise

Alter the demand by changing the direction of the throw, the distance, or the speed

A image thumb
29

Single-Leg Squat

Balance-Strength Exercises

Keep knee in line iwht the 3rd and 2nd toe

A image thumb
30

Single-Leg Squat Touchdown

Balance-Strength Exercises

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31

Single-Leg Romanian Deadlift

Balance-Strength Exercises

Keep the spine in neutral, use abs and glutes to stand upright

A image thumb
32

Multiplanar Step-Up to Balance

Balance-Strength Exercises

Fully extend the balance leg's hip for maximal glut recruitment when on the box

A image thumb
33

Multiplanar Lunge to Balance

Balance-Strength Exercises

Toes pointed straight. 

Knees over the foot.

Push off with your heal when returning to center. 

Don't make the stride too long that it causes excessive hip extension.

A image thumb
34

 

Multiplanar Hop with Stabilization (Sagittal, Frontal, and Transverse)

 

 

Balance-Power Exercises

Jump forward and back, SWITCHING LEGS during the jump. Then side and back, than turn 90 degrees in the hop. 

Make sure the landing is soft

Keep knee in line with the 2nd and 3rd toes

 

A image thumb
35

Multiplanar Single-Leg Box Hop-Up with Stabilization

Balance-Power Exercises

Hop onto a box without switching legs, from the front, side, and rotating 90 degrees.

A image thumb
36

Multiplanar Single-Leg Box Hop-Down with Stabilization

Balance-Power Exercises

Keep knee in line with toes and land as softly as possible. 

A image thumb
37

During the SINGLE LEG BALANCE REACH what is an important safety technique and why?

Keep the hips level to decrease stress to the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex.

38

During SINGLE LEG HIP ROTATION what is an important safety rule and why?

Rotate through the HIP of the balance leg versus the spine to decrease stress on the spine and enhance control of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex.

39

During the SINGLE-LEG LIFT AND CHOP what is an important safety technique?

Keep knee of the balance leg in line with the toes.

40

 

During the SINGLE LEG THROW AND CATCH what are 3 methods to increase the demand?

 

 

1. Toss the ball and different heights and across the body

2. Increase the distance between the two people

3. Increase velocity of each throw

 

41

 

During a SINGLE LEG SQUAT what should be watched out for and why?

 

 

-Keep knee in line with the toe and don't move inside or outside the 2nd or 3rd toe.

-This will decrease stress to the knee.

 

42

 

During a SINGLE LEG SQUAT what should be watched out for and why?

 

 

-Keep knee in line with the toe and don't move inside or outside the 2nd or 3rd toe.

-This will decrease stress to the knee.

 

43

During MULTIPLANAR LUNGE TO BALANCE what is an important safety technique and why?

Make sure the stride length is not too large if one has tight hip flexors. This can force the spine into excessive extension increasing stress to the low back

44

During MULTIPLANAR STEP-UP TO BALANCE what's a good technique to incorporate and why?

Make the balance leg's hip is in full extension during the end position To maximally recruit the glutes.

45

Q image thumb

Single-Leg Balance Reach

Balance Stabilization Exercise

Keep hips level and neutral

46

Q image thumb

 

Single-Leg Hip Roatation

Balance Stabilization Exercise

Rotate through hips not the spine

 

47

Q image thumb

Single-leg Lift and Chop

Balance Stabilization Exercise

Keep knee of stable leg in line with toes

48

Q image thumb

Single-Leg Throw and Catch

Balance Stabilization Exercise

Alter the demand by changing the direction of the throw, the distance, or the speed

49

Q image thumb

Single-Leg Squat

Balance-Strength Exercises

Keep knee in line with the 3rd and 2nd toe

50

Q image thumb

Single-Leg Squat Touchdown

Balance-Strength Exercises

51

Q image thumb

Single-Leg Romanian Deadlift

Balance-Strength Exercises

-Keep the spine in neutral,

-Use abs and glutes to stand upright

52

Q image thumb

Multiplanar Step-Up to Balance

Balance-Strength Exercises

Fully extend the balance leg's hip for maximal glut recruitment when on the box

53

Q image thumb

Multiplanar Lunge to BalanceBalance

-Strength Exercises

Toes pointed straight. 

Knees over the foot.

Push off with your heal when returning to center. 

Don't make the stride too long that it causes excessive hip extension.

54

Q image thumb

Multiplanar Hop with Stabilization (Sagittal, Frontal, and Transverse)Balance-Power Exercises

Jump forward and back, switching legs during the jump. Then side and back, than turn 90 degrees in the hop. 

Make sure the landing is soft

Keep knee in line with the 2nd and 3rd toes

55

What are 5 balance-STABILIZATION exercises?

1. Single-Leg Balance

2. Single-Leg Balance Reach

3. Single-Leg Hip Internal and External Rotation

4. Single-Leg Lift and Chop

5. SIngle-Leg Throw and Catch

56

Q image thumb

Multiplanar Single-Leg Box Hop-Up with Stabilization

Balance-Power Exercises

Hop onto a box without switching legs, from the front, side, and rotating 90 degrees.

57

What are 3 balance-power exercises?

1. Multiplanar Hop with Stabilzation

2. Multiplanar Single-Leg Box Hop-Up with Stabilization

3. Multiplanar Single-Leg Box Hop-Down with Stabilization

58

 

What are 5 balance-strength exercises?

 

1. Single-Leg Squat

2. Single-Leg Touchdown

3. Single-Leg Romanian Deadlift

4. Multiplanar Step-Up to Balance

5. Multiplanar Lunge to Balance

59

Q image thumb

Multiplanar Single-Leg Box Hop-Down with Stabilization

Balance-Power Exercises

Keep knee in line with toes

Land as softly as possible.