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What does supranational mean?

It means that the institutions are only focused on member states


What is the Maastricht treaty?

It is an expansion of the free movement of goods people and services and was established in 1992


What is the treaty of Amsterdam?

It codified the EU social chapter in 1997


What is the European constitution?

It strengthened the role of the European Parliament in 2004


What are the European Institutions?

The European Commission
The Council (of ministers)
The European Council
The European Parliament
The European Court of Justice (ECJ)


Who is the executive institution of the EU?

The European Commission


What are the features of the European Commission?

-It is the executive institution
-It has 28 members (1 from each state)
-It proposes legislation
-It is supranational


What are the features of the Council (of ministers)?

-It has 28 ministers from each state
-The minister depends on the issue being discussed
-It is the main decision making body
-Uses QMV (Qualified Majority voting)
-It is intergovernmental


What is QMV (Qualified Majority Voting)?

QMV gives member states votes on the basis of population size


What does intergovernmental mean?

Cooperation between the EU member states governments without abandoning national interests


What are the features of the European council?

-consists of heads of state or foreign secretaries
-It determines the direction of the EU
-It is the EU’s strategic and problem solving body
-It is intergovernmental


What are the features of the European Parliament?

-Made up of 751 MEPs who are elected every 5 years
-Scrutinise the European Commission
-Has legislative powers over some areas i.e. the environment


What are the features of the European Court of Justice?

-Acts on EU law
-Made up of 28 judges, 1 from each member state
-can strike down domestic laws that conflict with EU law


the EU suffers a democratic deficit

Comment on the above statement.

-the power to make policy lies with unelected institutions like The Council
-The only elected and accountable institution (the European Parliament) is too weak
-There is too little known of the EU’s inner workings

-The Council and European Council are made of ministers accountable to their electorate
-All key treaties are ratified by member states through elected representatives
-EU Parliaments role and status is increasing


The EU’s central aim consists of the “4 freedoms”. What do these include?

1) Movement of goods
Member states can not impose taxes on goods from other EU states
2) Movement of services
People can offer their professional services across the EU
3) Movement of people
Any citizen of one EU member state can seek employment in another EU member state
4) Movement of capital
Restrictions on capital movements between EU member states have been removed


What are the achievements of its aims?

-Single European Market
-Free Movement of people
-abolition of national currency
-EU citizen rights
-EU Charter of Fundamental Human Rights


Why is the Single European Market a success?

-It has created 2.5 million jobs
-Increased EU GDP by 15%


Why is the Single European market not a success?

-EU regulation is costly for small and medium sized enterprises
-Competitive industry have imposed costs to share wealth


Why is the free movement of people a success?

Beneficial migration into the UK from other EU states. 3.2 million EU citizens living in UK

1.2 million UK citizens moved to other EU states


Why was the free movement of people not a success?

Eastward migration has left demographic and skills gaps in states like Poland


Why was the abolition of national currency a success?

19/28 states joined the European Monetary Union


Why was abolition of national currency not a success?

The loss of national control of currency has been seen as the cause of debt crisis and therefore required ECB bailouts


Why was the EU citizen rights a success?

EU citizens have the right to vote in EU Parliamentary elections and the right to permanent residence in another EU country

Also workers rights have benefited ie working hours and rights


Why was the EU Charter for Fundamental Human Rights a success?

Gave people the right to life, right to freedom and equality and free movement


What is an example of EU law being sovereign?

The 1990 Factortame case demonstrates this as it took sovereignty over the UKs Merchant Shipping Act 1988


What is an example of Parliament being sovereign over EU law?

Parliament could repeal the European Communities Act for which the 2016 referendum result provided the basis


Was Parliament sovereign despite the EU

-Steady accumulation of power in the hands of the executive rendered Parliament ineffective
-Devolution of power, rise of unelected quangos and use of referendum


Will Brexit restore national sovereignty?

The UK will no longer have an authority to strike down national law
The agriculture, health and safety and environmental protection will return to UK jurisdiction


What institutions in the EU held power in the 1950s?

The Commission
The Council of Ministers


Who is Julian king?

The UK Commissioner for the EU