Chapter 13 - Bandura Flashcards Preview

Theories of Personality > Chapter 13 - Bandura > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Bandura Deck (15):
1

Observational learning

Learning new responses by observing the behaviour of other people

2

Vicarious reinforcement

Learning or strengthening a behaviour by observing the behaviour of others, and the consequences of that behaviour, rather than experiencing the reinforcement or consequences directly

3

Modeling

A behaviour-modification technique that involves observing the behaviour of others (the models) and participating with them in performing the desired behaviour

4

Disinhibition

The weakening of inhibitions or constraints by observing the behaviour of a model

5

Attentional process

Developing our cognitive processes and perceptual skills do that we can pay attention to a model, and perceiving the model accurately enough, to imitate displayed behaviour

Example: staying awake during driver’s education class

6

Retention processes

Retaining or remembering the model’s behaviour so that we can imitate or repeat it at a later time; for this, we use our cognitive processes to form mental images and verbal descriptions of the model’s behaviour.

Example: taking notes on the lecture material or the video of a person driving a car

7

Production processes

Translating the mental images or verbal symbolic representations of the model’s behaviour into our own overt behaviour by physically producing the responses and reciting feedback on the accuracy of our continued practice

Example: getting in a car with an instructor to practice shifting gears and dodging the traffic cones in the school parking lot

8

Incentive and motivational processes

Perceiving that the model’s behaviour leads to a reward and thus expecting that out learning - and successful performance - of the same behaviour will lead to similar consequences.

Example: expecting that when we have mastered driving skills, we will pass the state test and receive a driver’s license.

9

Self (according to Bandura)

Set of cognitive processes and structure concerned with thought and perception

10

Self-reinforcement

Administering rewards or punishments to oneself for meeting, exceeding, or falling short of one’s own expectations or standards

11

Self-efficacy

Our feeling of adequacy, efficiency, and competence in coping with life

12

Sources of information about self-efficacy

1) performance attainment - prior achievements or failures will effect how one approaches current situations
2) vicarious experiences - seeing others’ successful performances or failures
3) verbal persuasion - reminding people of their abilities (realistically)
4) physiological and emotional arousal - being calm and composed can lead to higher self-efficacy

13

Guided participation

Involves watching a live model and then Participating with the model

14

Covert modeling

Subjects are instructed to imagine a model coping with a fear or threatening situation; they do not actually are a model

15

Reciprocal determinism

The idea that behaviour is controlled or determined by the individual, through cognitive processes, and by the environment, through external social stimulus events (I.e. behaviour is controlled by the person through the cognitive processes, and by the environment through external social situations)