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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (36):
1

acids according to bronsted-lowry:

H+ donor (proton donor)

2

bases according to bronsted-lowry:

bases according to bronsted-lowry:

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hydronium ion

H+

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conjugate base

everything that remains of the acid molecule after an proton is lot

5

conjugate acid:

formed when the proton is transferred to the base (accepts H+)

6

conjugate acid-base pair:

consists of two substances related to each other by donating and accepting of a single proton

7

Ka

acid dissociation constant

8

strong acid:

-equilibrium lies far to the RIGHT(all original HA is dissociated)
-strong acid yields a weak conjugate base
-Ka is large

9

weak acid

-equilibrium lies far to the LEFT (all original HA is not dissociated)
-strong acid yields an strong conjugate base
-Ka is small

10

diprotic acid:

a acid having two acidic protons

11

oxyacid

the acidic proton is attached to a oxygen atom

12

organic acids:

those with carbon atom backbone (contain carboxyl group)

13

monoprotic acid:

have one acidic proton

14

amphoteric:

can behave either as a acid or as a base (water)

15

Kw:

-ion-product constant (dissociation constant for water)
-refers to the autoionization of water
-in any aqueous solution at 25 degrees celcius, no matter what it contains
-the product of (H+) and OH-) must equal: 1.0 10-14

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autoionization of water

-the transfer of a proton from one water molecule to another to produce an hydroxide ion (H30) and hydronium ion (OH)

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Kw in an neutral solution:

H+ = OH-

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Kw in an acidic solution:

H+ > OH-

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Kw in an basic solution:

OH- > H+

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pH:

-log [H+]
-pH decreases as H+ increases

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anions of an SA:

neutral (Cl-, NO3-, I-, ClO4-, Br-)

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cations of an SB:

neutral (Li +, Na+, K+, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+)

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anion

(-)negative

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cation

positive (+)

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weak base

-Kb is small

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Ka>Kb

-ph < 7 (acidic)

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Kb>Ka

-ph > 7 (basic)

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Ka=Kb

-pH = 7 (neutral)

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anion of an WA:

slightly basic (anything but the anions of an SA)

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anion of an WB:

slightly acidic (anything but cations of SB)

31

Strong acids:

HCl
HNO3
HI
H2SO4
HClO4
HBr

Claire (Cl) climbed over four (ClO4) brooms (Br) in Inida (I) while napping over 3 (NO3) solid ostriches (SO4)

32

strong bases:

LiOH
NaOH
KOH
Ca(OH)2
Sr (OH)2
Ba (OH)2

33

when you add a strong acid and strong base

the pH is neutral (7)

34

triangle Hvap:

40.7 kJ/mol

35

at STP

273 liters
1 atm
liters
moles

36

triangle Hfus

:6.02kJ/mol