Chapter 14 - New Body Cells Flashcards Preview

Human Biology - Unit 2 > Chapter 14 - New Body Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14 - New Body Cells Deck (19):
1

What is mitosis?

The division of cells for growth and maintenance.

2

What are the six main phases of mitosis?

Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis

3

What occurs in interphase?

DNA molecules duplicate.

4

What occurs in prophase?

- nucleoli disappear
- nuclear membrane breaks down
- centrioles move to opposite poles
- chromosomes appear as pairs of chromatids
- spindle forms

5

What occurs in metaphase?

Chromosomes line up on the spindle in the centre of the cell.

6

What occurs in anaphase?

- centromeres divide
- chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell

7

What occurs in telophase?

- spindle disappears
- nuclear membranes and nucleoli form
- centrioles divide
- chromosomes uncoil and disappear
- cytokinesis begins

8

What occurs in cytokinesis?

- cytoplasm of the cell divided into two, each with a nucleus

9

What is differentiation?

The process by which cells become specialised.

10

What are stem cells?

Cells that are not specialised for any particular role but undergo differentiation.

11

What does cancer result from?

The normal differentiation of a cell going wrong.

12

What are some examples of carcinogens?

- UV radiation
- x-rays
- ionising radiation
- viruses
- chemical carcinogens

13

What are the 4 phases of the cell cycle?

- G1 phase
- S phase
- G2 phase
- M phase

14

What is G0 phase of the cell cycle?

When a cell stops dividing for a period of time or for the person's life

15

What occurs in G1 phase?

The cell:
- produces proteins
- grows
- carries out its normal tasks for the body

16

What occurs in S (synthesis) phase?

- DNA molecules duplicate

17

What occurs in G2 phase?

- the preparation of cell division

18

What occurs in M (mitotic) phase?

- the cell undergoes mitosis and divides into two daughter cells

19

What are some lifestyle factors to prevent the risk of cancer?

- avoid smoking
- use sunscreen and other sun protection
- avoid being overweight or obese
- limit alcohol intake