chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

A&P 2 Chapter 16 > chapter 16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 16 Deck (74):
1

hormones

long distance chemical signals that travel the blood or lymph

2

two types of hormones?

Amino acid based hormones and steroid hormones

3

Amino acid based hormone?

amines, thyroxine, proteins, and peptides

4

what hormone is synthesized from cholesterol? This class includes gonadal and adrenocorticoid homromes

steroid hormones

5

what are two mechanisms of hormone action?

Water soluble hormones and lipid soluble hormones

6

Know that all water soluble hormones are all amino acid based except?

thyroid

7

___________ act on intracellular receptors that directly activate genes ( directly diffuse into cell)

lipid soluble hormones

8

______ bind to receptors thru secondary messengers

water soluble hormones

9

Steps of mechanisms of hormone actions

1. alter plasma membrane permeability pf membrane potential by opening and closing ion channels
2. stimulate synthesis of proteins or regulatory molecules
3. activate/ deactivate enzyme systems
4. induce secretory activity
5. stimulate mitosis

10

cAMP steps

1. hormone binds to receptor
2. receptor changes shape, activate G protein inside the cell.
3. GTP binds to G protein, activate adenylate cyclase
4. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cyclic AMP
5. cAMP activates protein kinases

11

What is up regulation?

target cells form more receptors

12

What is down regulation?

target cell loses receptors

13

hormones can act in several different ways, what are the 3 ways?

permissiveness
synergism
antagonism

14

What is it called when one hormone cant work w/o another one present?

permissivness

15

What is synergism?

more than one hormone can produce the same effect on a target cell

16

what Is it called when one or more hormone oppose the action of another?

antagonism

17

intracellular receptors ( steroid hormones and thyroid hormone)

1. diffuse into target cell, bond w intracellular receptors
2. receptor- hormone complex enters nucleus
3. receptor hormone binds to DNA
4. prompts DNA transcription-> mRNA
5. mRNA direct protein synthesis

18

target cell activation depends on what three things?

1. blood level of hormone
2. # of hormone receptors on or in target cell
3. affinity of binding between hormone and receptor

19

blood level of hormones are controlled by

negative feedback systems

20

hormones are synthesized and released in response to?

- humoral stimuli
-neural stimuli
- hormonal stimuli

21

changes blood levels of ions and nutrients directly stimulates secretion of hormones is what stimuli?

humoral

22

ex of humoral stimuli?

Ca2+ in de blood
Declining ca@+ in the blood stimulate PTG to release PTH and then the Ca2+ levels rise and stimulus is removed

23

Neural/ hormonal stimuli?

nerve fibers stimulate hormone release. hormones stimulate other endocrine organs to release their hormones

24

the pituitary gland has two lobes called what

anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary

25

what makes up the anterior pituitary?

pituicytes and nerve fibers

26

what makes up the posterior pituitary?

glandular tissue

27

Anterior pituitary hormones are all ______ except _____ activate cAMP

proteins and GH

28

Which hormones are tropic?

TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH

29

name all the anterior pituitary hormones

GH, TSH, LH, PRL, ACTH, FSH

30

_____ are cell of pituitary that directly target body cell growth. These cells produce what hormone?

Somatotrophs and Growth hormone

31

Hypersecretion of GH

kids- gigantism
adults- acromegaly

32

Hyposecretion of GH

pituitary dwarfism

33

Hypersecretion of TH

graves disease

34

Hyposecretion of TH

myxedema
kids- cretinism

35

hyperseretion of glucocorticoids

cushings syndrome

36

hyposecretion of glucocorticoids

addisons disease

37

alcohol inhibit the release of

ADH

38

____ also know as vasopressin

ADH

39

_______ respond to changes in the solute concentration of the blood

hypothalamic osmoreceptors

40

if solute concentration is high _____ depolarize and transmit impulses to hypothalamic neurons

osmoreceptors

41

if solute concentration is low, ____ is not released, allowing water loss

ADH

42

the _____ consists of two lateral lobes connected by a median mass called an _____

thyroid and isthmus

43

____ Is the most important hormone on Ca2+ homeostasis

PTH

44

The parathyroid gland contain _____ cells and _____ cells that secret PTH

oxyphil and chief

45

Adrealn medulla v Adrenal cortex

medulla- nervous tissue, part of SNS
cortex- three layers of glandular tissue that synthesize and secrete corticosteroids

46

3 layers of adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa
zone fasiciculata
zona reticularis

47

zone glomerulosa is

mineralcorticoids- aldosterone

48

zona fasciculate is

glucocorticoids- cortisol

49

zona reticularis

sex hormone, androgens, gonadocorticoids

50

_____ leads to production of androgens and estrogen

DHEA

51

_____ is the most important mineralcorticoid?

Aldosterone ( regulate electrolytes)

52

_____ is the most significant glucocorticoid. It's prime metabolic effect is _____ which is formation of glucose from fats and proteins

Cortisol, gluconeogensis

53

glycogenolysis

break down of glycogen to glucose

54

glyconeogenesis

synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbs

55

____ ells secrete ___% epinephrine and __% norepinephrine

chromaffin, 80, 20

56

What is epinephrine?

stimulates metabolic activites, bronchial dilation, and blood flow to skeletal muscles and heart

57

what is norepinephrine?

influences vasoconstriction and BP, concentration

58

Alpha cells

produce glucagon ( a hyperglycemic hormone)

59

beta cells

produce insulin ( a hypoglycemic hormone)

60

aldosterone secretion mechanism

1. RAAS: kidney secrete renin, triggers angitension ll formation
2. K+ concentration; increased K+ stimulates zona glomerulosa to secrete aldosterone
3. ACTH: cause slight increase in aldosterone during stress
4. ANP: block renin and aldosterone; decrease BP

61

Growth hormone (GH)

S: A. Pituitary
T: body cells, bones, muscles
A: growth and development
Produced by somatotrophs

62

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

S: a. pituitary
T: thyroid
A: regulate thyroid hormones
Produced by thyrotrophs

63

ACTH

S: A. pituitary
T: Cortex
A: regulate cortex hormones
produced by corticotrophs

64

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

S: A. pituitary
T: ovaries/ testes
A: stimulate egg production
secreted by gonadotrophs

65

Lutenizing hormone (LH)

S: A. pituitary
T: ovaries/ testes
A: ovulation/ sex hormone release
secreted by gonadotrophs

66

Prolactin (PRL)

S: A. pituitary
T: breasts
A: milk secretion

67

ADH

S: P. pituitary
T: kidneys
A: water balance, BP

68

oxytocin

S: P. pituitary
T: uterus, breasts
A: uterine contraction, milk secretion

69

Thyroid gland is composed of follicles that produce the glycoprotein

thyroglobulin

70

_____ ( thyroglobulin+iodine) fills the ___ of the follicles and is the precursor to ____

colloid, lumen, thyroid hormone

71

Parafollicular cells produce

calcitonin

72

thyroid hormone (thyroxine)

S: thyroid
T: body cells
A: regulate metabolism

73

calcitonin

S: thyroid gland
T: adrenal cortex
A: reulate cortex hormones
secreted by parafollicular cells

74

Parathyroid hormone

S: parathyroid
T: bone matrix
A: raise blood calcium